Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Marlows Racism in Heart of Darkness Heart of Darkness is an intriguing story as well as a symbol for Joseph Conrads social commentary on imperialism. Marlows journey takes him deep into the African Congo where he bears witness to a number of life-altering revelations. He beholds his most striking revelation when he begins to compare the civilized European man with the savage African man. These two opposing forces represent the two conflicting viewpoints present in every dilemma, be it cultural, social, or otherwise. As a modern European man who believes religiously in imperialism, Marlow is inherently arrogant. Yet, although he cannot accept the African jungle as being equally important as imperialism, hisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦No; you want a deliberate belief.* The inherent strength of civilized people is in our ability to trust to faith, to believe so much in something that it will preserve our sense of self even when it is threatened by total absence of, even the opposite conditions of, all that formed to make it. The Africans fascinate Marlow, lure that part of him that wants to escape from the surface-realities created by sociality. Is it a deliberate belief that saves him from asserting his attraction, or an accident of situation? You wonder I didnt go ashore for a howl and a dance? Well, no-I didnt. Fine sentiments, you say? Fine sentiments be hanged! I had no time. I had to mess about with white-lead and strips of woollen blanket helping to put bandages on those leaky steam-pipes, I tell you. ...There was surface-truth enough in these things to save a wiser man.* The technological realities of civilized man happened to allow him to focus his thoughts on work. Ã¢â¬Å"This reconciles with the notion of a deliberate belief because Marlow unshakeably believes that work contains truth (and he can assert this truth against the truth of the Africans) and is not another system of surface-realityÃ¢â¬ (Hubbard 125) . Marlow sees his journey as a demonstration of the failure of surfac e-realities to restrain man from gratifying his instinctual lusts; their failure in even remaining surface-truths but degenerating in the minds of man toShow MoreRelatedGender Role In Joseph ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s Heart of Darkness Essay1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGender Role In Joseph ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s Heart of Darkness For the most part people who read Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad may feel that the novella is strictly a story of exploration and racial discrimination. But to Johanna Smith who wrote Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Too Beautiful AltogetherÃ¢â¬â¢: Ideologies of Gender and Empire in Heart of DarknessÃ¢â¬ it is much more than that. Johanna Smith along with Wallace Watson and Rita A. Bergenholtz agree that throughout Heart of Darkness there are tones of gender prejudice, but the wayRead MoreEssay on Another Heart of Darkness1021 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Ignorance and Racism Joseph Conrad develops themes of personal power, individual responsibility, and social justice in his book Heart of Darkness. His book has all the trappings of the conventional adventure tale - mystery, exotic setting, escape, suspense, unexpected attack. Chinua Achebe concluded, quot;Conrad, on the other hand, is undoubtedly one of the great stylists of modern fiction and a good story-teller into the bargainquot; (Achebe 252). Yet, despite Conrads great story telling, heRead More Prejudice and Racism - No Racism in Heart of Darkness Essay1108 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNo Racism in Heart of Darkness Ã Ã Ã Chinua Achebe challenges Joseph Conrads novella depicting the looting of Africa, Heart of Darkness (1902) in his essay An Image of Africa (1975). Achebes is an indignant yet solidly rooted argument that brings the perspective of a celebrated African writer who chips away at the almost universal acceptance of the work as classic, and proclaims that Conrad had written a bloody racist book (Achebe 319). In her introduction in the Signet 1997 editionRead MoreEssay about Racism Exposed in Joseph ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s Heart of Darkness1059 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJoseph ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s novella, Heart of Darkness, effectively exposed the racism that was common during his lifetime. Through the harsh behavior and word choice of the characters and narrator, Conrad displays the uncivilized treatment of nonwhites that occurred during the period of colonization. Edward Garnett, an English writer and critic, summarized the plot of Heart of Darkness as being Ã¢â¬Å"an impressionÃ¢â¬ ¦ of the civi lizing methods of a certain great European Trading Company face to face with the Ã¢â¬Å"niggerÃ¢â¬ Read MoreArguments Against Chinua Acebes An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrads Heart of Darkness1622 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLiterature and Composition 6 March 2013 An Image of Africa: Not Racism in ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËHeart of DarknessÃ¢â¬â¢ People of dark skin have been wrongly discriminated against by racists for hundreds of years. From the first time Europeans stepped onto Africa and deemed black skin inferior till now, black people have been fighting for the right to be called equal. During the last century Africans have made great strides in fighting against racism. Many black leaders have risen up and confronted those racist againstRead MoreHeart Of Darkness Essay1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJoseph Conrads novel Heart of Darkness uses character development and character analysis to really tell the story of European colonization. Within Conrads characters one can find both racist and colonialist views, and it is the opinion, and the interpretation of the reader which decides what Conrad is really trying to say in his work. Chinua Achebe, a well known writer, once gave a lecture at the University of Massachusetts about Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness, entitled An image of Africa:Read More Colonialism and Imperialism in Conrads Heart of Darkness Essay1016 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesImperialism Exposed in Conrads Heart of Darkness Ã Ã Ã Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness is a novel about European imperialism and its far-reaching effects. Conrad relates his personal opinions through the protagonist, Marlow, who learns a great deal about imperialism while on a journey to the African Congo. Although Heart of Darkness seems to be an anti-imperialistic work, this is not entirely true. Conrad condemns the overly idealistic nature of imperialism, but does not attack BritainsRead More The Evil of Colonialism and Imperialism in Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad1559 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesColonialism in Heart of Darkness Ã Ã Ã A masterpiece of twentieth-century writing, Heart of Darkness exposes the tenuous fabric that holds civilization together and the brutal horror at the center of European colonialism. Joseph Conrads novella, Heart of Darkness, describes a life-altering journey that the protagonist, Marlow, experiences in the African Congo.Ã The story explores the historical period of colonialism in Africa to exemplify Marlows struggles. Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness is mostRead More Comparing Colonialism and Imperialism in Heart of Darkness and Kiplings Poetry1515 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesImperialism in Heart of Darkness and Kiplings Poetry Ã Ã Ã Imperialism sprung from an altruistic and unselfish aim to take up the white mans burden1 and Ã¢â¬Å"wean [the] ignorant millions from their horrid ways.Ã¢â¬ 2 These two citations are, of course, from KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"White ManÃ¢â¬â¢s BurdenÃ¢â¬ and ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s Heart of Darkness, respectively, and they splendidly encompass what British and European imperialism was about Ã¢â¬â at least seen from the late-nineteenth century point of view. This essay seeks to exploreRead MoreJoseph Conrad s Heart Of Darkness1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJoseph ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s s novel Heart of Darkness portrays an image of Africa that is dark and inhuman. Not only does he describe the actual, physical continent of Africa as Ã¢â¬Å"so hopeless and so dark, so impenetrable to human thought, so pitiless to human weaknessÃ¢â¬ , (Conrad 154) as though the continent could neither breed nor support any true human life. Conrad lived through a time when European colonies were scat tered all over the world. This phenomenon and the doctrine of colonialism bought into at his
Monday, December 16, 2019
External Analysis 1. PESTLE Factors Political and LegalÃ · Government has high work efficiency, justice and transparency. Ã · Company or individual have low tax rate easy to calculate. We will write a custom essay sample on External Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ã · Government supports the development of industry and commerce. | EconomicÃ ·Hong Kong is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s 11th trading powers and 2nd stock market in Asia. Ã ·One of the most free trade port and open investment policy. It is the only one RMB offshore market. Ã ·Over-estimation of the number of visitors. Loss $46 million in the second year and $12 million in its third year. | Socio-CulturalÃ ·By colonial influence, Hong KongÃ¢â¬â¢s culture will more closely to the western country. Ã ·More open and easy then investment in mainland China. Widely recognized as one of the freest economies in the world. Ã ·Well adapt the Chinese culture. Ã ·Marketing campaign was not aggressive enough. | TechnologicalÃ ·Diversification in Business and professional service. Have highly educated professional talents and modern management structure. | EnvironmentalÃ ·Resulted in major environmental problem, such as the death of the marine life and pollution from the nightly fireworks display . | | 2. Implication of PESTLE Analysis * As the management over-estimation of the number of visitors and with the Shanghai Disneyland will open in 2014, Disney HK should consider expansion their current target markets, not only focusing on the visitors are from the mainland China. Hong Kong Disney should be more aggressive in their marketing campaign to let more visitors will able to make more visit. At the same time, Disney HK should improve their service quality also the management as well. * Hong Kong public feels that Disney has shown little respect for the sentiments of people and has exhibited little social responsibility. Disney HK should increasing emphasis on environmentally and become more socially responsible. How to cite External Analysis, Essay examples
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Eating disorders, any range of psychological disorders characterized by abnormal or disturbed eating habits, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, have been around since the 1870s and are increasingly taking over the world today. These two types of eating disorders are taking over predominantly. What is causing this outbreak? The media is affecting the societies because most people they see on television, magazines, and the fashion industry are below average weight. What was once called a Ã¢â¬Å"Model DiseaseÃ¢â¬ is now a trending disease. Not only does eating disorders affect adults and teens but also small children. It is evident that the media plays a major, important role in eating disorders. Weak minded people concerned with their image are more influence than the normal person. The society is now all about the Ã¢â¬Å"idealÃ¢â¬ image. Who comes up with the idea that being abnormally small is the Ã¢â¬Å"idealÃ¢â¬ image? Only sick minded people would even think that. True enough being skinny does not determine your health or happiness. The influence of the media cannot be refuted. What is the problem with eating disorders? Theyre just so photogenic! There are the young women or Ã¢â¬â even better Ã¢â¬â girls; the celebrities and fashion magazines that are, of course, the cause of eating disorders; female body shape and, thrillingly, the food that is eaten or, in this case, not eaten to obtain that shape. From an early age the society has been bombarded with images and messages that reinforce the idea that to be happy and successful we must be thin. It is nearly impossible to open a newspaper or magazine, listen to the radio, shop at a mall or turn on a TV without being confronted with the message that to be fat is to be undesirable. The most devastating thing is that it is finding itself to reach the minds of children. When adolescents feel as though their body image, such as their hips or weight, does not match up to those of supermodel and actors, they feel strongly flawed. The media constantly sends out images and messages promoting an almost unattainable, unrealistic image of beauty that has been consistently linked to eating disordered and body dissatisfaction predominantly among women, but has even gone as far as to influence males. American men and women strive to obtain the perfect body, or the Ã¢â¬Å"thin ideal,Ã¢â¬ that the media presents as normal. Eating disorders do not stem from a desire to be slim: they are an expression of unhappiness. The way a womans body is equated with her human value in the media can, to someone who is subconsciously looking for a way to articulate their unhappiness, feel like the perfect solution. Throughout the years the image has gone from a voluptuous and curvaceous body to a slimmer and leaner body. While it may be true that eating disorders affects the entire society, it is undeniable that teens are more influenced by those around them in the media. Why are teens more influential? They are always surrounded by peer pressure, low self-esteem, and of course the media. Teens watch the media more than anyone because they are trying to keep up with the latest trends. The advertisements sell images of thins, beautiful women, along with the image is a message from the advertising company telling girls to lose weight, or increase their breast size. Television commercials can send a message that if they lost weight or apply beauty products they too will find love or be happy once again. If they are not up to par than one may be left out or feel insecure about them. Researchers, from Harvard Medical School, show that in Fiji in some areas that only 8% of household own televisions while in other areas 85% of homes owned them since 1995. (How Social Networks Spread). In the article How Social Networks Spread Eating Disorders, they compared the rates of eating disorders they discovered that those exposed to television were 60% more likely to display abnormal eating habits than those without exposure. Anxiety about the body image can start at a very young age. Surprisingly, by 1990 the average age that a girl began dieting had dropped to eight from fourteen in 1970 and more than half of nine and ten year old girls have admitted that they felt better about themselves when dieting. (Media Influence). Children grow up watching the many types of television shows. On almost everything they watch, even cartoons, there will always be an overweight character. For example, Patrick, on Spongebob, is portrayed as the abnormal or perhaps we can look at the show Family Guy. Peter Griffin is overweight and portrayed to have no common sense. Children look at particular things like this and start to thinking Ã¢â¬Å"Well if IÃ¢â¬â¢m overweight than I too am just like those characters on those shows. Ã¢â¬ and then there is a problem. According to a study from the University of Central Florida, nearly 50% of girls aged three to six were already concerned about their weight. (Media Influences). However, girls with direct exposure to television become vulnerable to eating disorders. Young girls are negatively affected by the overwhelming messages they receive from films portraying overly skinny movie stars. These girls are faced with societal pressures to fit in. The image impressions that the females give off on the young teen girls spreads like a virus. Nine out of ten girls who are high school juniors and seniors diet while only one out of ten of high school girls are overweight. (Media Influences). Ã¢â¬Å"Our study not only showed a second hand effect but demonstrated that this second and effect is the exposure of interest. Ã¢â¬ (Social Networks Spread). The social network can affect them without direct exposure because one could have a friend or someone that they are acquainted with and be exposed through them. In addition, the media is a very important aspect of life in our culture. The culture pressures the society to glorify the Ã¢â¬Å"thinnessÃ¢â¬ or muscularity and place value on obtaining the Ã¢â¬Å"perfect body. Ã¢â¬ The cultural norms value people on the basis of physical appearance and not inner qualities and strengths. This narrows the definition of beauty that include only women and men of specific body weights and shapes. For some, dieting, bingeing, and purging may begin as a way to cope with painful emotions and to feel in control of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life when looking at another life. In Media Influences, studies show that 95% of people who diet instead of following a healthy meal plan will gain back the weight they lose in between one and five years. Individuals who diet frequently diet often experience depression because they are never satisfied with their look. Exactly 73% of teenage girls who abuse diet pills and 79% of teenage girls who self-purge frequently read womenÃ¢â¬â¢s fitness and health magazines. (Media Influences). The diet and diet related product industry boasts annual revenues of about $33 billion. (Media Influences). By them knowing that they can make so much off of insecure people they continue to advertise being skinny. They advertise by showing their many commercials on TV or through magazines. Overall, research has shown that as commercials for diet foods and diet products have increases, the body sizes of Playboy centerfolds, Miss America contestants, fashion models and female actresses have decreased, while the weight of the average North American woman has increased. (The Role of the Media). Often, one of the first seating disorders symptoms to manifest is poor body image. A study show that women experience an average of 13 negative thoughts about their body each day, while 97% of women admit to having at least one Ã¢â¬Å"I hate my bodyÃ¢â¬ moment each day. ( Media Influence). Women often look at the stars on the media and automatically assume that is the Ã¢â¬Å"idealÃ¢â¬ image. What is the Ã¢â¬Å"idealÃ¢â¬ image? To the culture the Ã¢â¬Å"idealÃ¢â¬â¢ image is being slimmer than the norm. It seems as if you must have no hips, lack butt, and a hard rock flat stomach with huge breasts. Media influences how people view themselves. Media is in account for many interpretations and each is perceived differently by each individual. There are commercials that broadcast fast foods, which try to persuade us to buy the new and fattening food. However, not only do the media glorify a slender Ã¢â¬Å"idealÃ¢â¬ image, they also emphasize its importance, and the importance of appearances in general. The media tries to change us by showing overbearing and thin people as an object of desire. Among the advertisements and television commercials one is supposed to conclude, to buy all the newest fast food items, yet stay extremely thin. It is almost impossible to eat the commercial shown foods, be healthy, and obtain this look, and women do not realize this. Therefore to obtain the certain look that is portrayed by the media, adolescents are developing eating disorders. However, many adolescents see the overbearing thin celebrities and try to reach medias level of thinness and ideal body weight. Mannequins and models have grown thinner by the years increasingly disparate with the average womanÃ¢â¬â¢s physical form. Most runaway models have met the body mass weight to be called anorexia. Sure enough we have median or plus size model but over the years their dress size have become several sizes smaller. Some are even in the single digits again, for example an eight or maybe even a six. Being thin associated with other positive characteristics such as, lovable, popular, beautiful, and sexy, while being overweight is connected with negative characteristics like fat, ugly, unpopular, and lazy. Therefore media is the distinct social pressure of operating to influence people to be thin and causing eating disorders. This sends a message to the society saying Ã¢â¬Å"To be beautiful you have to be unhealthily thin. Ã¢â¬ On the other hand, there are some people who say that it is quite okay that the media contributes to eating disorders. It is supposed to influence the society that this is the look and also brings money in by portraying that. People will continue to purchase dietary things to have the look. If one do not have the look then one is not average, one could even be below average. They say that it is not about your feelings, forget them because no one cares. If one is suffering from an eating disorder it is not the media that is causing it, it is the insecurities one is having. In fact some ask the question, Ã¢â¬Å"Why have more of those who are slightly bigger on television than those who are smaller? Ã¢â¬ If that is done than the society will feel that is the Ã¢â¬Å"IdealÃ¢â¬ image look and there will be another issue, obesity. On that note, they will then say that the media is causing obesity instead unhealthy eating. It is known that obesity is not healthy and it will not make you happy. Either way you put it, nothing will win and everything is blamed on the media. Certainly, my oppositions have realized though the media does affect the society tremendously it does not affect everything. If that was true we could be affected by the different stars whose body is above average weight. For example, look at Oprah Winfrey. She struggle with her weight for years. It was causing health problems until one day she decided that it does not matter what her size is as long as she is healthy. Another example would be Queen Latifah, she has always been proud about her weight. When you see these two female stars on the media they show confidence. They are comfortable in their skins. Perhaps by showing more stars that are comfortable in their skins and are happy will influence the society to be happy with whom they are. For instance, being exposed to idealized, unrealistic, rail-thin images of beauty in the media and diet industry advertisements takes a toll on impressionable girls, who feel they can never measure up to these ideals. However, often what they do not realize is that the look they are trying to achieve is usually contrived, and that the image has been altered in some way before publication. Society has thus created a disillusioned atmosphere that leaves young women vulnerable to be influenced by the media, endlessly striving for a nonexistent perfection. If the media does not revise its ideal standard of beauty, more and more women could end up as victims of media triggered eating disorders.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
HUMAN RESOUCE MANAGEMENT CONTENTS 1. Introduction1 2. Literature review2 2. 1Emergence of PRP2 2. 2Concept of PRP3 2. 3Relevant theories of PRP4 2. 3. 1MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s motivational theory4 2. 3. 2Equity theory in PRP5 3. Case study6 3. 1Case one: Ã¢â¬Å"Why Do Companies Use Performance-Related Pay for Their Executive Directors? Ã¢â¬ (Bender, 2004)6 3. 2Case two: Ã¢â¬Å"Evaluating performance-related pay for managers in the National Health ServiceÃ¢â¬ (Dowling Richardson, 1997)9 4. Analysis and Evaluation of PRP Theory in Business Organisations11 4. 1Comparison11 4. Contrast12 4. 3Performance related pay theory in business organizations13 4. 3. 1Motivates employees and improve their performance14 4. 3. 2Facilitates change to organizational cultural14 4. 3. 3Encourages the internalization of performance norms15 4. 4Problems of PRP in practice15 4. 4. 1Setting performance objectives16 4. 4. 2Assessment and ratings17 4. 4. 3Reward17 5. Conclus ion18 Reference19 Appendices21 1. Introduction Nowadays, Human Resource Management has become a strategic and coherent approach more than just managing the competencies and skills of employees in an organization. Armstrong (2002) noticed that HRM is much more focus on people not jobs, and so does business organization (Lewis, 1998). We will write a custom essay sample on Prp Theories or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Yet, people have been placed as an important role of business. To this extent, this essay will take a critical look at PRP which is based on people, and also considered as an essential and sensitive part of the HRM in organizations today. The paper starts with a brief review of recent literature which reports studies of PRP systems. It continues with describing two case studies related to the practical discrepancy to PRP theories. It goes on to our own independent critical analysis by comparing the PRP theories and practice in real world. Finally, there are conclusions being drawn about the appropriateness of PRP in a research environment. 2. Literature review 2. 1 Emergence of PRP Performance-related pay (PRP) emerged in the early 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s which attempts to relate individual performance at work to reward, aiming to motivate people ad develop performance-oriented cultures. Besides business organisations, some public institutions such as governments and universities also adopt PRP as an essential level for championing values. By comparing with other payment schemes, the PRP idea was whole-heartedly accepted by employers and played a much more positive effect on improving employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour and organisationsÃ¢â¬â¢ culture. According to the IPD research into performance management practices in 1997, 43 per cent of respondents had PRP; additionally, IBS research in 1998 showed that 61 per cent of answers satisfied their merit pay. These figures make it easy to see that PRP have been widely applied among organizations whatever businesslike or public facility (Armstrong, 2002). There are a variety of reasons why organization may applied PRP. Armstrong and Murlis (1994) stated that Ã¢â¬Ëit is right and proper for people to be rewarded in accordance with their contributionÃ¢â¬â¢. According to Pilbeam Colbridge (2002), there are a number of factors contributing to the emergence of PRP, which is identified in Figure 1. The Thatcher legacy and Ã¢â¬ËenterpriseÃ¢â¬â¢ values in the public sector Increasingly competitive environment and concern with employee performance Unitary and neo-unitary employment relations perspectives Reassertion of the Ã¢â¬Ëright to manageÃ¢â¬â¢ and increasing managerial control Influence of HRM demagogy Strategic integration of reward Trends towards individualism and the weakening of collectivism Emergence of PRP Figure 1: Factors contributing to the emergence of PRP (Pilbeam Corbridge, 2002) 2. 2 Concept of PRP ACAS (1990) defined individual performance-related pay (PRP) as Ã¢â¬Å"a method of payment where an individual employee receives increases in pay based wholly or partly on the regular and systematic assessment of job performanceÃ¢â¬ . Additionally, Murlis (1996) claimed a significant distinction between the use of PRP to managing performance straight from the motivational stimulation of financial rewards (motivation) and the use of PRP to identify different levels of performance (reward). Based on these points, PRP can be commented as a combination of three key factors: motivation, performance and rewards, which work in two ways that motivating people to achieve expected performance; and rewarding these people who have achieved successful performance. Based on these three factors and their relationships, Pilbeam and Corbridge (2002) identified three stages for PRP application: Firstly, setting individual performance criteria by imposition, discussion or agreement firstly; secondly, assessing performance against individual performance criteria which established in stage1; thirdly, allocating pay to the assessment of performance by the exercise of managerial prerogative. 2. 3 Relevant theories of PRP 3. 2 2. 3. 1 MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s motivational theory in PRP MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s (1943, 1987) hierarchy of needs and the two factor theory of Herzberg (1959) indicated that pay can be considered as the most effective way to satisfy humanÃ¢â¬â¢s need and further to motivate people to work more effectively, which means appropriate payment can stimulate employee to achieve successful performance that maximizing organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s benefits. Kessler and Purcell (1922) noted that employees will be easily motivated if there is a direct and close relationship between performance and reward. Therefore, PRP schemes could motivate the employees to increase their efforts to accomplish good performance. 2. 3. 2 Equity theory in PRP The Equity theory of Adams (1965) identified that employees have a strong need to be treated fairly which can be balanced by an equity between their input like work performance and output like rewarding. Compared to other types of pay like non-incentive pay which is based on collectively-negotiated rule, PRP associates employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ productivity with their behaviour, rewarding employees for their successful performance, which is much more fair and reasonable. From these theories, we can see that PRP has brought a lot of potential benefits on improving HRM efficiency of organization. However, there are some shortages in PRP application in practice, which will be discussed in following two empirical case analyses. 3. Case study 3. Case one: Ã¢â¬Å"Why Do Companies Use Performance-Related Pay for Their Executive Directors? Ã¢â¬ (Bender, 2004) The paper focused on the issue of rewards to the listed companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ executive director. There are variable ways to pay the rewards. Thus the performance-related pay introduced to this paper. At the beginning of this paper prior research introduces three types of theory to explain why companies use performance-related pay: agency theory , motivation theories (expectancy, equity), and institutional and legitimacy theories. Research designing utilized 12 companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ interviews with 35 persons who stand in different positions. These interviews lasted for two years from December 2001 to May 2003. The interviews reflected different opinions about the influence of PRP. Some of the answers demonstrated PRP could motivate people to do work well: Alan Wilson, chief executive of Skandia UK regarded pay as a motivator; a HR director thought if everyone was paid the same base salary, they would always do the same. But a part of the respondents denied that PRP made an effort in motivating people in the work. A CEO argued that whether PRP works depends on which market you were in and also on when the people were on flat salaries. Also another respondent held a neutral idea on motivation of PRP to managers. A CEO categorized his employees into two types: one type chased money and the other worked for vocational interests and he realized that PRP was in a position to exert influence on those who chased money and not on employees worked for vocational interests. At the end of this part the author reaches the conclusion that lack of money is a de-motivator. Furthermore, interviews demonstrated some different ideas: a) Payment represents personal value of employees. The more contribution you have made, the more you can earn; b) Focus and fairness: according to the answers from interviewees, we can find that the company adopts PRP with the intention to make executives focus on their work efforts and fairness can improve employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance; c) The need to provide alignment: here is a large number of factors influence performance in long-term and some of those cannot be observed currently; d) Other reasons to introduce performance-related pay: the requirement of government to adopt PRP and because of everybody has it so you has to have it; e) Problems with performance-related pay: a consultant pointed out that PRP system would bring unpredictable problems especially in long-term and it is difficult to select appropriate measure and tar gets. Market Practices Need for Legitimacy Need to Attract and Retain Implement a performance-related reward scheme Set performance measures and targets and use it to communicate strategy DirectorsÃ¢â¬â¢ actions and behaviours Business performance Performance-related award Monetary award Increased human capital for future negotiations Effect on individualÃ¢â¬â¢s self worth Figure 2: Why Companies use performance-related pay (Bender, 2004) In the final part, the author summarizes this case study according to three theories mentioned at the beginning of our description and draws figure 1 to show why companies performance-related pay. . 2 Case two: Ã¢â¬Å"Evaluating performance-related pay for managers in the National Health ServiceÃ¢â¬ (Dowling Richardson, 1997) This paper includes 4 sections. Section 1 explains the NHS system which means the performance related pay system for general management in 1989. Section 2 concludes the evaluation criteria and explanatory framework. PRP is introduced on the initiative of management. According to Cannel an d WoodÃ¢â¬â¢s survey, PRP could be introduced to overcome problems with existing systems, o encourage employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation, to improve communication with work force, to reduce problems of recruitment. Kessler suggested that the PRP might also be used to improve the fairness of a payment system, to reduce union influence and the importance of collective bargaining, can also give additional influence to line managers. The purpose of PRP is said to reward those manage who achieve a more than competent standard of work and motivate managers to perform better. Section 3 values the efficiency of the scheme and four measures are utilized to check the outcome of the scheme. Managers had to be assessed by their supervisors and receive reward based on their performance if they had finished targets set at the beginning of the year. In NHS, the HR department designed the PRP system in order to motivate managers. However, through self-reported data from the managers covered by the PRP system, a majority of respondents saw the scheme as having little or no effect on their motivation to do their jobs well. Also the authors did not found solid evidence to show that there are corresponding negative consequences of PRP. The initial examination of the raw data clearly suggests that the three elements of the scheme achieved different degrees of success. The objective-setting elements seemed to be widely supported. It could be observed that the schemes rewards were either not appropriate or not sufficiently attractive to act as a motivator. PRP include the way in which performance standards are set and monitored. Section 4 explains the effects of PRP in the NHS. About 85% respondents showed satisfaction with the objective Ã¢â¬âsetting process. Furthermore, they also agreed that the challenge offered by the objective measures increase their determination to achieve their goal set before. On the other hand, there was also much critical comment on reward system such as subjectivity and appraiser bias. In addition, the PRP reward system was always cash limited. 4. Analysis and Evaluation of PRP Theory in Business Organisations 2 3 4. 1 Comparison Both of the two cases are involved in the topic of PRP, and focus on the effectiveness of PRP scheme. In addition, both of the researches partly agree that PRP is successful in some areas or in some extend, however, PRP is still not a perfect scheme due to various reasons. As what has been pointed out to be the problems in PRP, among all of the reasons mentioned in the papers, the objective-setting process has been pointed out in both of the researches, which indicates that this might be one of the key points which should be considered to improve PRP scheme. What is more, both of the papers mention that PRP is introduced in order to attract and retain executives with the potential of large earnings(Bender, 2004) and to improve the fairness of a payment system, to generate employee commitment (Dowling and Richardson, 1997), which can be considered as the positive points of PRP. 4. 2 Contrast The methods used in the research in the two cases are different. The case about PRP in the National Health Service used both quantitative and qualitative date from a questionnaire survey (Dowling and Richardson, 1997). While, the case conducted by Bender (2004) used qualitative date from an interview survey. Moreover, the perspectives used in the two papers also vary. As to the reasons why PRP is not more successful, Dowling and Richardson (1997) consider that there are three kinds of employees as being particularly important: firstly, those who think that the objective-setting process of PRP is coped with terribly; secondly, those who think the assessments are handled badly; lastly, those who believe that the rewards are not attractive enough to encourage their motivation. They hold the opinion that PRP has a less important influence on these people, which indicates that the improvement of objective-setting process, assessments and rewards might lead to improving the effect of PRP. While, the paper conducted by Bender (2004) indicates that the reason that PRP is not so successful is also related to the market in which directors are. Besides, salary and rewards are not the only recourses that could motivate managers. For instance, leisure can also play a significant role in the performance of managers. Additionally, PRP scheme has less important impact on those people who mainly work for vocational interests. Meanwhile, this paper (Bender, 2004) pays more attention to the reasons that PRP is used by companies. The writer points out some more reasons from interviews with directors other than the strong points of PRP which have been mentioned above. To be exactly, pay can be deemed as a symbol of worth and how much one can earn is associated with the self esteem for the executives. In the end, we can see from the two papers that PRP has developed successfully from 1997 to 2004 because what are reflected in the papers shows us that PRP has been used much more and been recognized in a wider range. As a result, we can conclude that with the use of PRP, this scheme has become and also will become more and more mature and contribute a lot to business organizations. 4. 3 Performance related pay theory in business organizations This section conducts analysis of two empirical cases critically and assesses the value of PRP theory and benefits it achieves in business organizations. The whole objective of pay related systems like the PRP and other HRM theories is obviously to bring or add to the value of business organizations. When we take a look at the first paper, it is obvious that on the average PRP increases an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s value. The following are the perceived benefits of the PRP theory: 4 5. 1 5. 2 5. 3 5. 4. 1 Motivates employees and improve their performance The human needs hierarchy theory of Maslow (1943, 1987) and the two factors theory of Herzberg (1959) indicate that in modern society satisfying human needs like payment is in a position to motivate people to work harder. Furthermore, in business organisations payment related to performance can stimulate people to accomplish the performance that organizations want. Kessler and Purcell (1992) claimed that if direct relationship exists between effort, performance and reward, employees would be motivated. PRP schemes act exactly as this direct link motivating the employees to increase their efforts. 5. 4. 2 Facilitates change to organizational cultural Kessler and Purcell (1992) argued that PRP refers to flexibility, dynamism, entrepreneurial spirit and careful allocation of resources, leading to a performance-orientated culture. Therefore, the introduction of PRP facilitates change in business organizations culture from collectively negotiated formula to individual contribution, which assists in solving problems, increasing value of organizations, and reducing problems of recruitment and retention. 5. 4. Encourages the internalization of performance norms Ã¢â¬Å"PRP can encourage the internalization of the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s goal or norms of behaviour among the employees of the organizationÃ¢â¬ (Geary, 1992). In the implementation of PRP, the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s norms of behaviour can be enhanced by rewarding congruous work effects and by punishing incongruous performance. Th ereby, it strengthens management control and clarifies job roles within organizations. 5. 4 Problems of PRP in practice Theoretically, PRP can produce many benefits for organizations, which have been demonstrated above. However, there are always gaps between theories and practice of PRP. In this part data from the NHS case will be utilized to illustrate some problems of PRP. Figure 3 above shows that only 2 percent respondents consider PRP as the motivator for them to work harder while respondents with opposite idea accounts for 45 percent. Also 67 percent respondents embrace neutral idea on the question of whether PRP scheme affect motivation to do the job and 77 percent respondents did not feel more co-operation after the introduction of PRP scheme. Question| Negative Positive| Does PRP have effect on your motivation to do the job well? 2| 3| 67| 25| 4| You consciously work harder because of the PRP scheme. | 45| 26| 17| 10| 2| You focus on PRP objectives rather than other activities. | 34| 34| 20| 10| 2| PRP changes co-operation level among colleagues| 2| 12| 77| 8| 1| Figure 3: PRP in the National Health Service (Dowling and Richardson, 1997) 5. 5. 4 Setting performance objectives It is essential for organizations to set up clear and measurable objectives so that the behaviour of employees can be guided by objectives. However, imposition and narrowness of PRP in objective-setting could lead to failure of the implementation. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, short term approach stemming from narrow and misleading objectives could make employees ignore intangible aspects and long-term tasks. Therefore, the weakness of PRP in objective-setting could discourage behaviour that is not financially rewarded and prevent business organizations from functioning well. 5. 5. 5 Assessment and ratings Assessment and ratings are indispensable stage of PRP system. In practice, two crucial elements during these processes, scales of ratings and fair appraisals made by managers are difficult to achieved, which make employees not satisfied with ratings given to them. As Belfield and Marsden (2002) argued that the use of PRP will do more harm than good if the right monitoring environment is not in place. 5. 5. 6 Reward PRP regards reward as the motivator for employees to work hard, which is often not the case in practice. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of the Hierarchy of Needs (1943) stated that payment is not the only need of human beings. Besides payment, people also have mental requirements such as belongingness needs, esteem needs and self-actualization. 5. Conclusion After critical analysis and assessment we can finally reach the conclusion that in theory PRP is in a position to provide business organizations certain benefits such as motivating employees, improving their performance, attracting executives, facilitating change in organizational culture and encouraging the internalization of performance norms. However, due to imposition and narrowness in objective-setting, unfairness and inaccuracy in assessment and ratings, and diversification of human needs, theoretical benefits of PRP cannot be reached. Therefore, more attention should be paid on the gap between HRM theories and their application in practice so that HRM theories can assist business organizations in increasing their values. Reference ACAS, 1990. Appraisal-related Pay. London: ACAS. Adams, J. S. , 1965. Inequity in social exchange. In: Berkowitz, L. ed. , Advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic Press, 267-299. Armstrong, M. , 2002. Employee reward. 3rd ed. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Armstrong, M. ; Murlis, H. , 1994. Reward Management, London: Kogan Page. Belfield, R. ; Marsden, D. , 2002. Matchmaking: the influence of monitoring environments on the effectiveness of performance pay systems. Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK. Bender, R. , 2004. Why Do Companies Use Performance-Related Pay for Their Executive Directors? Corporate Government, 12(4), pp. 521-533. Dowling, B. ; Richardson, R. , 1997. Evaluating performance-related pay for managers in the National Health Service. The Intematioruil Joumal of Human Resource Management, 8(3), pp. 348-366. Herzberg, F. , 1959. The Motivation to work, New York: John Wiley. Geary, J. F. , 1992. Pay, control and commitment: linking appraisal and reward. Human Resource Management Journal, 2(4), pp. 36-54. Kessler, I. ; Purcell, J. , 1992. Performance-related pay: objectives and application. Human resource management Journal, 2(3), pp. 16-23 Lewis, P. , 1998. Management performance-related pay based on evidence from the financial services sector. Human Resource Management Journal, 8(2), pp. 66-77 Maslow, A. H. , 1943. A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, pp. 370-396. Maslow, A. H. , 1987. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper ; Row. Murlis, H. , 1996. Pay at the Crossroads. London: Institute of Personnel Development. Pilbeam, S. ; Corbridge, M. , 2002. People Resourcing: HRM in Practice. 2nd ed. Harlow: FT Prentice Hall. Appendices Tow papers: Bender, R. , 2004. Why Do Companies Use Performance-Related Pay for Their Executive Directors? Corporate Government, 12(4), pp. 521-533. Dowling, B. ; Richardson, R. , 1997. Evaluating performance-related pay for managers in the National Health Service. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(3), pp. 348-366.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Understanding Convectional Rainfall Convectional rainfall occurs when the energy of the sun (or insolation) heats the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface and causes water to evaporate changing to water vapor. This warm, moist air then rises, and as it rises, it cools. The air reaches a point called the condensation level where it has cooled to such an extent that the water vapor condenses and turns back to a liquid form. This process of condensation high in the atmosphere leads to the development of clouds. As the clouds continue to grow the weight of the water droplets can eventually lead to precipitation. (You can see the cycle in this diagram.) Convectional Storms Convectional storms occur in many areas of the world. They are at their most severe in parts of the tropics where there is a water source and intense heating. They are also common in warm mountain areas like the European Alps in the summer. This photograph shows the towering cloud developed by strong rising air currents. This convectional storm occurred near Sydney in 2002. There was heavy rain and hail. Hailstones develop when ice particles form in the cloud. The currents of air move the particles up and down in the cloud and as this happens additional layers of ice form around the nucleus. Eventually, the hailstones becomeÃ too heavy to be kept up, and they fall to the ground. This website has some useful photographs and video clips. Convectional stormsÃ affect peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives in many ways. They can present various hazards to aircraft including turbulence and freezing at high altitudes. The following is based on an extreme weather summary for south Kansas in the USA. Source: Kansas 2006 crh.noaa.gov/ict/newsletter/Spring2006.php The convective storm started when hail 5 to 10 cms diameter hit a number of rural counties. Between 6:00 and 7:00 pm, one of the super-cellular severe storms in Reno County unleashed its power and caused disastrous and tragic results. The storm produced 80-100 mph winds on its southern end which raked south and southeast Reno County. This storm then took aim at Cheney Lake and State Park. The damage at the state park was major, and included the marina, around 125 boats, 35 campers, and an unspecified number of mobile homes. One mobile home was leveled. Total damage estimated around 12.5 million dollars. Six people were injured, all of whom required transport to Wichita hospitals. One man was killed when his fishing boat was overturned. On June 30th, Southeast Kansas was hit by destructive winds and hail that reached the size of baseballs. The baseball-sized hail hit parts of Woodson County around 7:35 pm, causing around $415,000 damage to crops. As the evening progressed, the severe thunderstorms, continued to unleash 80-100 mph winds. Hardest hit was Neosho County. In Chanute, large trees were uprooted with many falling onto homes and businesses. Other homes and businesses were completely unroofed. Numerous barns and sheds were destroyed. The towns of Erie and St. Paul experienced nearly identical fates. In Erie, one home was destroyed. In St. Paul, a church steeple was completely removed. Obviously, many power lines and power poles were blown down, severing power to all three towns. This round of atmospheric mayhem was responsible for $2.873 million damage to crops and property. Another product of severe convection that drew considerable attention in 2005 was the flash flood. The first major event occurred June 8th and 9th from around 8:00 pm the evening of the 8th to the early afternoon of the 9th. Hardest hit were Butler, Harvey and Sedgwick counties. In Butler County, two families required rescues from their homes 4 miles north of Whitewater. Numerous streets were barricaded in and around El Dorado, and creeks overflowed. The most notable occurred 2 miles northeast of Elbing, where Henry Creek overflowed, closing 150th Street as well as the 150th Street Bridge. In Harvey County, widespread 12-15 inch rainfalls in approximately 10 hours resulted in evacuations in Newton, where most streets were barricaded. Perhaps the worst flooding in this event occurred in Sedgwick, where an estimated 147,515 acres of farmland were inundated totaling an estimated $1.5 million damage. In Sedgwick County, 19 homes were flooded, of which 12 were mobile homes which are particularly susceptible to storm damages. These homes were completely surrounded by flooding; which isolated their occupants from the outside world. In Mt. Hope, people required rescue from their homes. Many streets and highways were barricaded, especially across Northern Sedgwick County, where flash floods reached 6 foot depths. The flooding inundated around 75,000 acres of farmland. Total property damage was estimated at $150,000. Ã ACTIVITIES Study the article above. Summarize the impacts of the convectional storms in Kansas in a list.Produce an article on the Sydney hail storm in 1999. This could be done in Microsoft Word, Publisher, or PowerPoint.You can also download this lesson in PDF format here.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Sri Lanka Facts and History With the recent end of the Tamil Tiger insurgency, the island nation of Sri Lanka seems poised to take its place as a new economic powerhouse in South Asia. After all, Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon) has been a key trading hub of the Indian Ocean world for more than a thousand years. Capital and Major Cities Administrative Capital: Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte, metro population 2,234,289 Commercial Capital: Colombo, metro population 5,648,000 Major Cities: Kandy population 125,400Galle population 99,000Jaffna population 88,000 Government The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka has a republican form of government, with a president who is both head of government and head of state. Universal suffrage starts at age 18. The current president is Maithripala Sirisena; presidents serve six-year terms. Sri Lanka has a unicameral legislature. There are 225 seats in Parliament, and members are elected by popular vote to six-year terms.Ã The Prime Minister is Ranil Wickremesinghe. The president appoints judges to both the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals. There are also subordinate courts in each of the countrys nine provinces. People Sri Lankas total population is approximately 20.2 million as of the 2012 census. Nearly three-quarters, 74.9%, are ethnic Sinhalese. Sri Lankan Tamils, whose ancestors came to the island from southern India centuries ago, make up about 11% of the population, while more recent Indian Tamil immigrants, brought in as agricultural labor by the British colonial government, represent 5%. Another 9% of Sri Lankans are the Malays and Moors, descendants of Arab and Southeast Asian traders who plied the Indian Ocean monsoon winds for more than a thousand years. There are also tiny numbers of Dutch and British settlers, and aboriginal Veddahs, whose ancestors arrived at least 18,000 years ago. Languages The official language of Sri Lanka is Sinhala. Both Sinhala and Tamil are considered national languages; only about 18% of the population speaks Tamil as a mother tongue, however. Other minority languages are spoken by about 8% of Sri Lankans. In addition, English is a common language of trade, and approximately 10% of the population are conversant in English as a foreign language. Religion Sri Lanka has a complex religious landscape. Almost 70% of the population are Theravada Buddhists (mainly the ethnic Sinhalese), while most Tamils are Hindu, representing 15% of Sri Lankans. Another 7.6% are Muslims, particularly the Malay and Moor communities, belonging primarily to the Shafii school within Sunni Islam. Finally, about 6.2% of Sri Lankans are Christians; of those, 88% are Catholic and 12% are Protestant. Geography Sri Lanka is a teardrop-shaped island in the Indian Ocean, southeast of India. It has an area of 65,610 square kilometers (25,332 square miles), and is mostly flat or rolling plains. However, the highest point in Sri Lanka is Pidurutalagala, at an impressive 2,524 meters (8,281 feet) in altitude. The lowest point is sea level. Sri Lanka sits at the middle of a tectonic plate, so it does not experience volcanic activity or earthquakes. However, it was heavily impacted by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, which killed more than 31,000 people in this mostly low-lying island nation. Climate Sri Lanka has a maritime tropical climate, meaning that it is warm and humid throughout the year. Average temperatures ranges from 16Ã °C (60.8Ã °F) in the central highlands to 32Ã °C (89.6Ã °F) along the northeast coast. High temperatures in Trincomalee, in the northeast, can top 38Ã °C (100Ã °F). The entire island generally has humidity levels between 60 and 90% year-round, with the higher levels during the two long monsoonal rainy seasons (May to October and December to March). Economy Sri Lanka has one of the strongest economies in South Asia, with a GDP of $234 billion US (2015 estimate), a per capita GDP of $11,069, and a 7.4% annual growth rate. It receives substantial remittances from Sri Lankan overseas workers, mostly in the Middle East; in 2012, Sri Lankans abroad sent home about $6 billion US. Major industries in Sri Lanka include tourism; rubber, tea, coconut and tobacco plantations; telecommunications, banking and other services; and textile manufacturing. The unemployment rate and percentage of the population living in poverty are both an enviable 4.3%. The islands currency is called the Sri Lankan rupee. As of May, 2016, the exchange rate was $1 US 145.79 LKR. History The island of Sri Lanka appears to have been inhabited since at least 34,000 years before the present. Archaeological evidence suggests that agriculture began as early as 15,000 BCE, perhaps reaching the island along with the ancestors of the aboriginal Veddah people. Sinhalese immigrants from northern India likely reached Sri Lanka around the 6th century BCE. They may have established one of the earliest great trade emporiums on earth; Sri Lankan cinnamon appears in Egyptian tombs from 1,500 BCE. By about 250 BCE, Buddhism had reached Sri Lanka, brought by Mahinda, the son of Ashoka the Great of the Mauryan Empire. The Sinhalese remained Buddhist even after most mainland Indians had converted to Hinduism. Classical Sinhalese civilization relied on complicated irrigation systems for intensive agriculture; it grew and prospered from 200 BCE to about 1200 CE. Trade flourished between China, Southeast Asia, and Arabia by the first few centuries of the common era. Sri Lanka was a key stopping point on the southern, or sea-bound, branch of the Silk Road. Ships stopped there not only to restock on food, water and fuel, but also to buy cinnamon and other spices. The ancient Romans called Sri Lanka Taprobane, while Arab sailors knew it as Serendip. In 1212, ethnic Tamil invaders from the Chola Kingdom in southern India drove the Sinhalese south. The Tamils brought Hinduism with them. In 1505, a new kind of invader appeared on Sri Lankas shores. Portuguese traders wanted to control the sea-lanes between the spice islands of southern Asia; they also brought missionaries, who converted a small number of Sri Lankans to Catholicism. The Dutch, who expelled the Portuguese in 1658, left an even stronger mark on the island. The legal system of the Netherlands forms the basis for much of modern Sri Lankan law. In 1815, a final European power appeared to take control of Sri Lanka. The British, already holding the mainland of India under their colonial sway, created the Crown Colony of Ceylon. UK troops defeated the last native Sri Lankan ruler, the King of Kandy, and began to govern Ceylon as an agricultural colony that grew rubber, tea, and coconuts. After more than a century of colonial rule, in 1931, the British granted Ceylon limited autonomy. During World War II, however, Britain used Sri Lanka as a forward post against the Japanese in Asia, much to the irritation of Sri Lankan nationalists. The island nation became fully independent on February 4, 1948, several months after the Partition of India and the creation of independent India and Pakistan in 1947. In 1971, tensions between the Sinhalese and Tamil citizens of Sri Lanka bubbled over into armed conflict. Despite attempts at a political solution, the country erupted into the Sri Lankan Civil War in July of 1983; the war would continue until 2009, when government troops defeated the last of the Tamil Tiger insurgents.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Myth into Film - Essay Example This paper will comprehensively explore the similarities and difference between the two and my deduction of what each author is trying to bring out in their story. Despite Euripides Medea and DassinÃ¢â¬â¢s A Dream of PassionÃ¢â¬â¢s different settings, they have some similarities. Both Medea and A Dream of Passion, follow the tales of women who are forced by circumstances to kill their children, born and unborn, to satisfy their interests. The two stories exhibit high emotions of love, passion and vengeance. In EuripidesÃ¢â¬â¢ play, Medea, the protagonist Medea is so much in love with her husband Jason. She feels extremely betrayed by her husband when she learns of his unfaithfulness and plans to marry Creons daughter. She cannot bear her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s betrayal and feels a great desire to carry out revenge on him. Creon, on the other hand, anticipates Medea to retaliate. To protect his daughter from MedeaÃ¢â¬â¢s wrath; he decides to send Medea into exile. Eventually, Medea succeeds in killing Glauce, Creon and her three children. She inflicts unimaginable pain on her husband not only by the killings, but also by her decision to escap e to Athens with the corpses of her children. JasonÃ¢â¬â¢s betrayal of her love leads her to commit such heinous crimes. Like in Medea, A Dream of Passion presents a similar scenario. Maya goes through the same situation as Medea but in a different context. In A Dream of Passion, The character, Brenda represents the real Medea, and she killed her three children to carry out revenge on her husband. However, MayaÃ¢â¬â¢s similarities to Medea are brought out through her interactions with Brenda. Like Brenda killed her children, Maya carried out an abortion. Thus they are both equal in that they killed despite the motive behind their killings. Brenda killed for vengeance while Maya killed to be a star, to be a celebrity, prosperous and independent.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Primary and Community Care Policy - Essay Example These families need to be supported on the huge responsibilities (Department of Health 2008). Primary care is diverse and wide in terms of its healthcare with different skilled people who work for the care of patients. Patients can be taken care of by different community service in the comfort of their homes (Walshe and Smith 2011). This paper will review the health care policy relevant to the primary or community care setting, and identify the key factors of the policy and analyze how effective the policy has been in the primary and community environment. This document will analyze some of the major policies that are often discussed. Health care policy Health care policy is the strategic plan, and decision performed to achieve specific health care goal within a society. An explicit health care can make up for a couple of important things (Nolan and Badger 2002). It sets up a vision for the future that assists in establishing targets of reference for the short and medium term goals. It lays down the priorities, and the role expected of different groups, and it creates consensus and informs people on the better way of life. Various policies have been placed to ensure that children are in a position to have the best start of life, and support their families need to give them in the form of a chance to fulfill their potentials. In essence, children and young adults with a grievous life condition are in positions that best equate them to access of high-quality, family centered, sustainable care support, with services provided in a selected setting, as stated by the children, and their familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ desires (Nolan and Badger 2002). The services shall be commissioned and delivered in line with identified local need and national policy and driven by best practice. These practices are associated with the myriad of services that are generally provided in the proposed settings, those that have been chosen by the children, and their familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Sines et al 2009). Moreover, disabled children will be considered both at local and national priority in all the settings that the government shall be undertaking. The healthcare communities must be in positions where they can deliver excellent health care services to all their clients without discrimination of the payment of services. According to Smith and Goodwin 2005, better care in all the settings ensures help in improving the outcome for children, young people together with families who might be living with limiting and threatening health conditions (Ashworth et al 2002). Effect created by policy in primary and community environment. Partnership working The government is determined on working together with other partners in the voluntary and private sector in sharing the agenda towards the realization of better changes in the improvement of lives for children who experience life-limiting and life-threatening conditions like the disabled persons. Patient care teams are professionals who are div erse in their line of duty. In fact, the professionals continually communicate on the best ways of taking care and attending to different patient groups, and participate in the care through out. Good working teams are depicted by strong working leadership that is effective, shared obligations, common visions, and cooperation, and obedience, members must also invest in their talents, defined roles, and responsibilities (Cox and Hill 2010). This
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Public Enterprises Essay What are the Objectives of Public Enterprises? SOUMYA SINGH In India, public enterprises have been assigned the task of realising the objectives laid down in the Directive Principles of State Policy. Public sector as a whole seeks: (a) to gain control of the commanding heights of the economy, (b) to promote critical development in terms of social gain or strategic value rather than on consideration of profit, and (c) to provide commercial surplus with which to finance further economic development. The main objectives of public enterprises in India are as follows: 1. Economic development: Public enterprises were set up to accelerate the rate of economic growth in a planned manner. These enterprises have created a sound industrial base for rapid industrialisation of the country. They are expected to provide infrastructure facilities for promoting balanced and diversified economic structure of development. 2. Self-reliance: Another aim of public enterprises is to promote self-reliance in strategic sectors of the national economy. For this purpose, public enterprises have been set up in transportation, communication, energy, petro-chemicals, and other key and basic industries. . Development of backward Areas: Several public enterprises were established in backward areas to reduce regional imbalances in development. Balanced development of different parts of the country is necessary for social as well as strategic reasons. 4. Employment generation: Unemployment has become a serious problem in India. Public enterprises seek to offer gainful employment to millions. In order to protect jobs, several sick units in the private sector have been nationalised. 5. Economic surplus: Public enterprises seek to generate and mobilise surplus for reinvestment. These enterprises earn money and mobilise public savings for industrial development. 6. Egalitarian society: An important objective of public enterprises is to prevent concentration of economic power and growth of private monopolies. Public sector helps the Government to enforce social control on trade and industry for ensuring equitable distribution of goods and services. Public enterprises protect and promote small scale industries. 7. Consumer welfare: Public enterprises seek to protect consumers from exploitation and profiteering by ensuring supply of essential commodities at cheaper prices. They aim at stabilising prices. 8. Public utilities: Private sector is guided by profit motive. Therefore, it is reluctant to invest money in public utility services like water supply, gas, electricity, public transport. Therefore, the Government has to assume responsibility for providing such services. 9. Defence: Government has to set up public enterprises for production of defence equipment. Supply of such equipment cannot be entrusted for private sector due to the need for utmost secrecy. 10. Labour welfare: Public enterprises serve as model employers. They ensure welfare and social security of employees. Many public enterprises have developed townships, schools, college and hospitals for their workers. Role and Rationale of Public Enterprises The public sector has been playing a vital role in the economic development of the country. In fact the public sector has come to occupy such an important place in our economy that on its effective performance depends largely the achievement of the countrys economic and social goals. Public sector is considered a powerful engine of economic development and an important instrument of self-reliance. The main contributions of public enterprises to the countrys economy may be described as follows: 1. Filling of gaps: At the time of independence, there existed serious gaps in the industrial structure of the country, particularly in the field of heavy industries. Basic and key industries require huge capital investment, involve considerable risk and suffer from long gestation periods. Private sector concerns do not come forward to establish such industries. Public sector has helped to fill up these gaps. The basic infrastructure required for rapid industrialisation has been built up, through the production of strategic capital goods. The public sector has considerably widened the industrial base of the country and speeded up the pace of industrialisation. 2. Employment: Public sector has created millions of jobs to tackle the unemployment problem in the country. Public sector accounts for about two-third of the total employment in the organised industrial sector in India. By taking over many sick units, the public sector has protected the employment of millions. Public sector has also contributed a lot towards the improvement of working and living conditions of workers by serving as a model employer. 3. Balanced regional development: Private industries tend to concentrate in certain regions while other regions remain backward. Public sector undertakings have located their plants in backward and untraded parts of the country. These areas lacked basic industrial and civic facilities like electricity, water supply, township and manpower. Public enterprises have developed these facilities thereby bringing about complete transformation in the social-economic life of the people in these regions. Steel plants of Bhilai, Rourkela and Durgapur; fertilizer factory at Sindri, machine tool plants in Rajasthan, precision instruments plants in Kerala and Rajasthan, etc. are a few examples of the development of backward regions by the public sector. 4. Optimum utilisation of resources: Public enterprises make better utilisation of scarce resources of the country. They are big in size and able to enjoy the benefits of large scale operations. They help to eliminate wasteful completion and ensure full use of installed capacity. Op timum utilisation of resources results in better and cheaper production. 5. Mobilisation of surplus: The profits earned by public enterprises are reinvested for expansion and diversification. Moreover, public sector concerns like banks and financial nstitutions mobilise scattered public savings thereby helping the process of capital formation in the country. Public enterprises earn considerable foreign exchange through exports. 6. Self reliance: Public enterprises have reduced considerably the need for imports by producing new and better products within the country. These enterprises are also earning considerable amount of foreign exchange through exports. 7. Socialistic pattern of society: Public sector is an instrument for realising social objectives. Public enterprises help to check concentration of wealth and private monopolies. These enterprises can serve as powerful means of economic and social change. 8. Public welfare: Public enterprises help in the establishment of a welfare state in the country. These enterprises supply essential commodities at cheaper rates. A proper balance between demand and supply is created to protect consumers against exploitation by profit hungry businessmen. Public enterprises also protect and promote the interests of workers. Criticism of Public Enterprises [Arguments against Public Enterprises] Public enterprises are opposed on account of weaknesses in their organisation and working. These enterprises generally suffer from the following problems: 1. Delay in completion: Often a very long time is taken in the establishment and completion of public enterprises. Delay in completion leads to increase in the cost of establishment and benefits extracted from them are delayed. 2. Faulty evaluation: Public enterprises are in some cases set upon political considerations. There is no proper evaluation of demand and supply and expected costs and benefits. There are no clear cut objectives and guidelines. In the absence of proper project planning there is under- utilisation of capacity and wastage of national resources. . Heavy overhead costs: Public enterprises often spend huge amounts on providing housing and other amenities to employees. Though such investment is useful for employees but it takes away a large part of capital and the project suffers from financial difficulties. 4. Poor returns: Majority of the public enterprises in India are incurring loss. In some of them the profits earned do not yield a reasonable return on huge investment. Lack of effective financial controls, wasteful expenditure and dogmatic pricing policy result in losses 5. Inefficient management: Due to excessive centralisation of authority and lack of motivation public enterprises are managed inefficiently. High level posts are often occupied by persons lacking necessary expertise but enjoying political support. 6. Political interference: There is frequent interference from politicians and civil servants in the working of public enterprises. Such interference leaves little scope for initiative and freedom of action. Public enterprises enjoy little autonomy and flexibility of operations. 7. Labour problems: In the absence of proper manpower planning public enterprises suffer from over-staffing. Jobs are created to fulfil employment goals of the Government. Guarantee of job in these enterprises encourages trade unions to be militant in pursuing their aims. Growth of Public Enterprises in India At the time of independence, public sector in India was confined mainly to railways, communications, defence production and public utility services. Since then the growth of public enterprises has been very rapid. Now public sector consists of public utilities (e. g. , railways, post and telegraph, etc), manufacturing concerns (e. g. , BHEL, SAIL, etc. ), trading organisations (e. g. STC, MMTC, etc. ), service organisations (e. g. , NIDC, RITES, etc. ). SAIL, a Maharatna Company of Govt. of India, is the worlds leading and Indias largest steel producer with an annual turnover of around Rs. 50,348 crore (FY11-12). It operates and owns 5 integrated steel plants at Rourkela, Bhilai, Durgapur, Bokaro and Burnpur and 3 special steel plants at Salem, Durgapur and Bhadravati. As part of its g lobal ambition the Company is implementing a massive expansion plan involving project work of building/adding new facilites with emphasis on state of the art green technology. List of Maharatna, Navratna and Miniratna CPSEs As per available information (as on February, 2013) Maharatna CPSEs Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited Coal India Limited GAIL (India) Limited Indian Oil Corporation Limited NTPC Limited Oil amp; Natural Gas Corporation Limited Steel Authority of India Limited Navratna CPSEs Bharat Electronics Limited Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited National Aluminium Company Limited NMDC Limited Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited Oil India Limited Power Finance Corporation Limited Power Grid Corporation of India Limited Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited Rural Electrification Corporation Limited Shipping Corporation of India Limited Miniratna Category I CPSEs Airports Authority of India Antrix Corporation Limited Balmer Lawrie amp; Co. Limited Bharat Dynamics Limited BEML Limited Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Bridge amp; Roof Company (India) Limited Central Warehousing Corporation Central Coalfields Limited Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited Cochin Shipyard Limited Container Corporation of India Limited Dredging Corporation of India Limited Engineers India Limited Ennore Port Limited Garden Reach Shipbuilders amp; Engineers Limited Goa Shipyard Limited Hindustan Copper Limited HLL Lifecare Limited Hindustan Newsprint Limited Hindustan Paper Corporation Limited Housing amp; Urban Development Corporation Limited India Tourism Development Corporation Limited Indian Railway Catering amp; Tourism Corporation Limited IRCON International Limited KIOCL Limited Mazagaon Dock Limited Mahanadi Coalfields Limited Manganese Ore (India) Limited Mangalore Refinery amp; Petrochemical Limited Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited MMTC Limited MSTC Limited National Fertilizers Limited National Seeds Corporation Limited NHPC Limited Northern Coalfields Limited Numaligarh Refinery Limited ONGC Videsh Limited Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited Projects amp; Development India Limited Railtel Corporation of India Limited Rashtriya Chemicals amp; Fertilizers Limited RITES Limited SJVN Limited Security Printing and Minting Corporation of India Limited South Eastern Coalfields Limited State Trading Corporation of India Limited Telecommunications Consultants India Limited THDC India Limited Western Coalfields Limited WAPCOS Limited Miniratna Category-II CPSEs Bharat Pumps amp; Compressors Limited Broadcast Engineering Consultants (I) Limited Central Mine Planning amp; Design Institute Limited Ed. CIL (India) Limited Engineering Projects (India) Limited FCI Aravali Gypsum amp; Minerals India Limited Ferro Scrap Nigam Limited HMT (International) Limited HSCC (India) Limited India Trade Promotion Organisation Indian Medicines amp; Pharmaceuticals Corporation Limited M E C O N Limited National Film Development Corporation Limited National Small Industries Corporation Limited P E C Limited Rajasthan Electronics amp; Instruments Limited
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Bram Stoker's Dracula Meets Hollywood For more than 100 years, Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s Victorian novel, Dracula, has remained one of the most successful and revered novels ever published. Since its release in 1897, no other literary publication has been the subject of cinematic reproduction as much as Dracula. Dracula has involuntarily become the most media friendly personality of the 20th century. When a novel, such as Dracula, is transformed into a cinematic version, the end product is usually mediocre and provides non-existing justice to the pain staking work endured by the author. Due to production costs and financial restrictions, the director and screenplay writer can never fully reproduce an entire literary work into a screen version. With the complications of time restriction in major motion pictures, a full-length novel is compacted into a two-hour film. This commonly leads to the interference in the sequence of events, alternation of plots and themes, and the elimination of important characters or events. But the one true adversary of novel-based films is Hollywood fabrication. Producers, directors, and playwrights add or eliminate events and characters that might or might not pertain to the storyline for the sake of visual appeal, therefore defacing the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s work. The above explanations have not paralyzed the countless attempts made by directors to bring the legendary Dracula to the big screen. Some cinematic reproductions of the novel have been more successful and critically acclaimed than others. According to Stuart, Ã¢â¬Å" From 1897 to 1993 there have been at least 600 vampire movies. Dracula has been portrayed on film at least 130 timesÃ¢â¬ (Stuart 217). But three versions of the genre have emerged as the most d... ...James Craig. Dracula in the Dark: The Dracula Film Adaptations. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1997. Skal, David J. The Monster Show: A Culture History of Horror. New York: W.W.Norton & Co., 1993. Silver, Alain, and James Ursini. The Vampire Film: From Nosferatu to Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dracula. New York: Limelight Editions, 1994. Tibbetts, John C., and James M. Welsh. Novels into Films: The Encyclopedia of Movie Adapted from Books. New York: Checkmark Books, 1999. Filmography Browning, T. (Director), & Fort, G. (Screenplay). (1931). Dracula [Motion Picture]. United States: Universal Studios Murnau, F.W. (Director). (1922). Nosferatu: Eine Symphonie des Grauens [Motion Picture] Germany: Prana Films Coppola, Francis F. (Director), & Hart, James V. (Screenplay). (1992). Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dracula [Motion Picture]. United States: Columbia Pictures
Monday, November 11, 2019
For most of its history, western political theory has ignored women. Women have seldom appeared in its analyses of who should have power, when it finally decided to notice women it usually defended their exclusion from public affairs and their confinement to the home; only rarely have women been seen as political animals worthy of serious consideration. The inequalities that exist between men and women are seen as of little practical importance and theoretical interest. Feminist political theory however, sees womenÃ¢â¬â¢s situation as central to political analysis, its focuses on why in most societies men appear to have more power and privilege than women and how can this be changed. The term feminist came into use during the 1880Ã¢â¬â¢s, indicating support for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s equal legal, economic, social and political rights with men. (Bryson, 2003) Feminism reflects the varied needs and perceptions of women in different societies and situations. Feminists argue that all women have the right to education, employment, political participation and full legal equality. Although strongly opposed in the past, they are largely accepted in the west today. However, women still remain disadvantaged despite gaining legal rights. (Bryson, 2003) All feminist do not think alike. Depending on time, culture and country feminism around the world have sometimes had different causes and goals. The labels help mark the range of different approaches, perspectives and frameworks a variety have used to shape both their explanations for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s oppression and their proposed solutions for its elimination. The three groups of feminist theories I will seek to analyse in order to assess their contributions against what is known about Caribbean women and their realities in this essay are Liberal, Radical and Black feminist perspectives. One thing we know about Caribbean women is that they have always worked. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s position in the Caribbean has been characterised by a dual work role, they engage in both household and extra household work, in order to provide for their families. Evidence has shown, that after slavery the tradition of female labour continued. Joycelin Massiah states that black women had no choice but to work, because the idea of man as the breadwinner was unrealistic and unattainable. Women were forced to take the major responsibility of their households because a large number of men had emigrated. Erna Brodber examined the role of women in some Caribbean countries. She states that despite the public image of womanhood which stressed on the abstention from physical work for elite woman, Caribbean women continued to seek work outside the household and support themselves. Brodber also states that images of white women portray them as Ã¢â¬Å"delicateÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"unassumingÃ¢â¬ , the black woman is portrayed as Ã¢â¬Å"hardworking to the point of being comicalÃ¢â¬ . (Massiah, 1986) Work outside the household however did not free Caribbean women from their household responsibilities; these women still had to ensure their husbands were still taken care of. Men in the Caribbean societies felt that because of economic circumstances, females should be employed outside the home and should contribute to the expenses. They also believe that domestic duties should still remain the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility, even if she is employed. In the public domain, women defer widely to male authority and decision making, but in the domestic domain, she exercises power. (Massiah, 1986) Radical feminism claimed to go to the roots of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s oppression, and it proclaimed itself as a theory of, by and for women; as such, it was based firmly in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s own experiences and perceptions. Secondly, it saw the oppression of women as the most fundamental and universal form of domination, and its aim was to understand and develop strategies for the end of that oppression. Thirdly, women as a group had interests opposed to those of men; these interests united them in a common sisterhood that transcended the division of class and race, and meant that women should struggle together to achieve their own liberation. (Bryson, 2003) Radical feminism names all women as part of an oppressed group, stressing that no woman can walk down the street or even live in her home safely without fear of violation from men. French feminist Christine Delphy points out that like all oppressed people, many women do not like to accept that they are part of an oppressed group, developing various forms of denial in order to avoid identification. To the radical feminists, patriarchy is the oppressing structure of male domination. Radical feminism makes male control visible as it is exercised in every sphere of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, both public and private. It stresses that Ã¢â¬ËemancipationÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËequalityÃ¢â¬â¢ on male terms is not enough. A total revolution of the social structures and the elimination of the processes of patriarchy are essential. (Rowland & Klein, 1991) Patriarchy is the domination of men over women. Kate MilletÃ¢â¬â¢s early work (1971) is a good example of the approach that Ã¢â¬Ësex is a status category with political implicationsÃ¢â¬â¢. Patriarchy, dominates over class, religion, race and culture. Patriarchy is a system of structures and institutions created by men in order to sustain and recreate male power and female subordination. Institutional structures like the law, religion, the family, have ideologies which perpetuate the naturally inferior position of women; socialisation processes to ensure that women and men develop behaviour and belief systems appropriate to the powerful or powerless group to which they belong. These structures are dominated by men who ensure that they maintain these positions. Within the private domain of the family, men have structured a system whereby womanÃ¢â¬â¢s reproductive capacity leaves her vulnerable and powerless, domestically exploited, and entrapped in economic dependence. (Rowland & Klein, 1991) The family is maintained through the notion of romantic love between men and women, when in fact marriage contracts traditionally have an economic base. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s labour within the family, which has been unpaid and unacknowledged, is defined as Ã¢â¬Ëlabour of loveÃ¢â¬â¢. Women Ã¢â¬Ëby natureÃ¢â¬â¢ are said to be passive, submissive and willing to be led. Processes like socialisation of children encourage this situation to continue. Patriarchy has a material base in 2 senses. First, the economic systems are structured so that women have difficulty getting paid labour in society which values only paid labour and in which money is the currency of power. Women without economic independence cannot sustain themselves without a breadwinner. They cannot leave a brutal husband, cannot withdraw sexual, emotional and physical servicing from men, they cannot have equal say in decisions affecting their own lives. Radical feminists have therefore stressed the necessity for women to exercise economic power in their own lives. The second material base is the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s body. Women in marriage are seen to be Ã¢â¬ËownedÃ¢â¬â¢ by their husbands and cannot bring a civil case of rape. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies are advertised and pornography alike objectified and defined as Ã¢â¬ËotherÃ¢â¬â¢ and available for male use. Rowland & Klein, 1991) Radical feminists sees the oppression of women as universal, crossing race and cultural boundaries, as well as those of class and other structures like age and physical ability. One of the basic tenets of radical feminism is that any woman in the world has more in common with any other woman regardless of class, race, age, ethnicity, nationality, than any woman has with any man. In Sisterhood is Global (1984) Robin Morgan draws together contributions from feminists in seventy countries, the majority of which are third world countries. She begins with a quote about the global position of women in the report to the UN Commission on the states of women. Ã¢â¬ËWhile women represent half the global population and one third of the labour force, they receive one tenth of the world income and own less than one percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s property. They are also responsible for two thirds of all working hoursÃ¢â¬â¢. In the developing world women are responsible for more than fifty percent of all food production. In the industrial nations women are still paid only half to three quarters of menÃ¢â¬â¢s wages. Most of the world are starving are women and children. Women in all countries bear the double burden of unpaid housework in association with any paid work they do. Radical feminists thus hold that women are oppressed primarily and in the first instance as women. But because of differences in their lives created by, for example culture and class, women experience oppression differently. (Rowland & Klein, 1991) Black feminist theorising has made critical contributions to feminist epistemology. The theory comprises of a body of work by black feminist intellectuals reacting to the failure of existing feminist explanatory framework to adequately comprehend the realities of black women. Feminists like Sojourner Truth, Audre Lorde, Patricia Bell, Patricia Hill Collins as well as many others interrogated existing feminist theories and found them lacking, as they fully ignored or denied black womenÃ¢â¬â¢s specific experiences. For instance Sojourner TruthÃ¢â¬â¢s powerful statement on racial inequalities Ã¢â¬ËAinÃ¢â¬â¢t I A WomanÃ¢â¬â¢ was a 19th Century deconstruction of the notion of a global, common womanhood and an insistence on inserting black womanhood in the concept of what it meant to be a woman. In her speech Truth argued that white women were placed on a pedestal and gave them certain privileges (mostly that of not working), this attitude was not extended to black women. Speaking of the U. S. A in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s Audre Lorde stated, Ã¢â¬Å"by and large, within the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movement today, white women focus upon their oppression as woman and ignore differences of race, sexual preference, class and age. (Barriteau, 2006) The work of black feminists reveals hierarchies of power within categories of race, class, gender, patriarchal relations, sexuality and sexual orientation. Black feminism demonstrates that white or other feminist theorising refuses or fails to recognise race as a social relation of domination within feminism and society. Radical, socialist and liberal feminist had examined other oppressive social relations but none had made race central to their analysis, black feminist theory exposes racism. They focus on difference in order to understand problems of oppression. Audre Lorde points out that white radical feminist Mary Daly images white women as Goddesses, with African women entering her analysis Ã¢â¬Ëonly as victims and preyers upon each otherÃ¢â¬â¢. Here Lorde exposes a key distortion that is similar to how early development discourses constructed women in the Caribbean. Women in the south, whether Caribbean, or African were seen as helpless victims in need of international development intervention. (Barriteau, 2006) This theory holds that the constructed invisibility if black womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives must be challenged. For example, much of the history of the West Indies was based on the activities of black men. Black feminist thinkers underline the importance of using lived experiences as a criterion for generating knowledge. Deborah KingÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of multiple jeopardy or multiple consciousness shifted the conception of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s oppression as confined within ethnic and racial boundaries. She was concerned with the invisibility of black women. She noted that class inequality compounded the problem of racism and sexism for black women and felt that class constituted a third jeopardy. She therefore defined multiple jeopardy as, a way to understand the ways in which various forms of oppression interact in ways that negatively affect the lives of black women. Much of feminist theory represents white ethnocentric feminist theorising and is therefore inadequate in not addressing the concerns of other women, especially black women. (Barriteau, 2006) Unlike radical feminism, black feminism goes on to demonstrate how racist relations follow black women into the private realm. Experiences of relations of oppression within households differ for black or minority women in a racist state. Central to black feminist theorising is the knowledge that patriarchal relations structure womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives very differently to their male peers. The Ã¢â¬Ërule of the fatherÃ¢â¬â¢ enforces menÃ¢â¬â¢s power in the family and society. In the Caribbean, men have assumed the role of patriarchs. Black feminist theory reveals that there are other dimensions to black womenÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences of the home that are not captured by other feminist theories, especially for those black women who for centuries have been obliged to work outside the home, whether in fields, factories or the homes of others. Many of these women instead of longing to be liberated from the home, they yearn for the opportunity to go home or stay at home. Hazel Carby noted that ideologies of black female domesticity and motherhood have been constructed through black womenÃ¢â¬â¢s employment in chattel positions as domestic workers and surrogate mothers to white families rather than in relation to their own families. (Barriteau, 2006) In terms of sexuality, black women have been stereotyped as having wild and uncontrollable sexual urges. Black women were presented as either whorish or unsexed; they were either nanny or jezebel. Evelyn Hammond has argued that black womenÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality is constructed in opposition to that of white women. In the struggle for sexual liberation, many white women demanded reproductive technologies in order to say yes to sex, while black women wanted autonomy and freedom from a racist and intrusive state in order to say no. (Barriteau, 2006) Criticisms of black feminist theory are that sometimes there is the impression that all oppressions are equal, and it has been critiqued for assuming that black women have a superior standpoint in the world. There is also a sense in which persons of African descent are privileged in black feminist thought. (Bryson, 2003) The final theory I will analyse is the liberal feminist theory. Liberalism is based on the principle of individual liberty, in which every person should be allowed to exercise freedom of choice. Each individual should be given equal opportunities and civil rights, but that was conceived of as a privilege that should extend to European men. When it comes to state interventions in the private sphere, liberals agree that the less we see of Big brother in our homes the better. (Tong, 2009) Liberal feminist Mary Wollstonecraft has been very influential in her writing, Ã¢â¬ËA Vindication of the Rights of WomanÃ¢â¬â¢. She wrote at a time when the economic and social position of European women was in decline. These women were left at home with little productive work to do, and they were married to relatively wealthy professional men. These women had no incentive to work outside the home or, if they had several servants inside it. (Tong, 2009) Middle class ladies were, in WollstonecraftÃ¢â¬â¢s estimation, Ã¢â¬ËkeptÃ¢â¬â¢ women who sacrificed health, liberty and virtue for whatever prestige, pleasure and power their husbands could provide. She denied that women are, by nature, more pleasure seeking and pleasure giving than men. She reasoned that if men were confined to the same cages that trap women, men would develop the same flawed characters. She stated that women lacked the power of reason because they were encouraged to indulge themselves and please others. She believed that women should have the same access to education as men. She believed that women should experience full personhood. Other liberalists John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor Mill believed women needed suffrage in order to become menÃ¢â¬â¢s equals. They claimed the vote gave people the power to express their own political views but also change those systems, structures, and attitudes that contribute to their own and others oppression. (Tong, 2009) Betty Friedan in the Feminist Mystique, studies the lives of white middle class housewives living in the suburbs. She described the dissatisfaction of these women as the problem with no name. She claimed that these women led unfulfilling lives in their traditional roles as mother and wives. She argued that a more meaningful course for these women was to have the opportunity of full time work in the public sphere. She believed that the absence from the home would make children and husbands more self sufficient. She felt that by limiting women to being wives and mothers was limiting their full human development. She also believed that women would always have to work harder than men. (Bryson, 2003) The main critique of liberal feminism is that of racism and classism, they focused primarily on white, middle class women. They also privileged so called male values. They also continue to distinguish between the private and public lives of people without understanding that the private and public sphere often intersect. In conclusion, feminist epistemology has transformed the world for many Caribbean women, as it questions womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lived experiences and their roles in identity formation. Caribbean women in their roles have mostly preached a strong work ethic and promoted a strong social identity. The Caribbean has a legacy of race and colonial legacies, therefore the experiences and history of Caribbean women has been different. Unlike some the white middle class women in European societies that the liberal feminist talk about, Caribbean women have always had to work and frequently they have been the principal breadwinners in their households. But because of all the earlier groups of feminist theories about women, it paved a way for the new knowledge about Caribbean women and their realities.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Tuesday Great literature is often influenced by the lives of those who write it. Edgar Allan Poe is a clear example of a life influencing art. Two tragic events or afflictions from Edgar Allan Poe's life that influence much of his writing are violent death and the use of alcohol. Each of these reflects into two stories each. The first tragic event would be violent death. This affliction comes up in many of his pieces of writing, especially in Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Tell-Tale HeartÃ¢â¬ . Examples from the poem Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ that illustrate a heartbreaking death would be the loss ofLenore, of course. Text support is the line Ã¢â¬Å"And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floorÃ¢â¬ On many occasions Poe mentions the loss of his beloved Lenore. The violent, tragic roll comes into place when the raven says his sorrow and despair will go away nevermore. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Tell-Tale HeartÃ¢â¬ , the narrator loves this old man; however he stalks h im for 8 nights and murders him. After the murder, he buries the old man's body beneath the floor boards. These 2 tragic deaths express his feelings about how every woman he loved died a bloody, unfortunate, scary death due to tuberculosis.The Tell-Tale HeartÃ¢â¬ is a great candidate for the second tragic event or affliction as well, being the use of alcohol. It doesn't make much sense that the narrator would kill somebody he loved, right? If you notice, he mentions his Ã¢â¬Å"diseaseÃ¢â¬ , referring to alcoholism. The abuse of alcohol made him go mad. The second example out of text would be Ã¢â¬Å"The Black CatÃ¢â¬ . The narrator refers to the term Ã¢â¬Å"fiend intemperanceÃ¢â¬ When he is overtaken with alcohol, he becomes more and more irritable and moodyÃ¢â¬ ¦ so he killed his cat that loved him the more he hated it.In real life, Poe was known to use lcohol, which made him go insane. He became very irritable and crazy while under the influence and that definitely chang ed him for the worse. As you can see, Edgar Allan Poe incorporated many factors of his life and real dilemmas into his writing. Maybe that's why he was such a great writer, because it was how he expressed his true feelings. Some people play sports, some people draw, some people have other hobbies to express themselves, Poe wrote. Poe's stories and poems were indeed fiction, but definitely have a little bit of a realistic edge to them. poe essay By agullo