Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Understanding Convectional Rainfall Convectional rainfall occurs when the energy of the sun (or insolation) heats the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface and causes water to evaporate changing to water vapor. This warm, moist air then rises, and as it rises, it cools. The air reaches a point called the condensation level where it has cooled to such an extent that the water vapor condenses and turns back to a liquid form. This process of condensation high in the atmosphere leads to the development of clouds. As the clouds continue to grow the weight of the water droplets can eventually lead to precipitation. (You can see the cycle in this diagram.) Convectional Storms Convectional storms occur in many areas of the world. They are at their most severe in parts of the tropics where there is a water source and intense heating. They are also common in warm mountain areas like the European Alps in the summer. This photograph shows the towering cloud developed by strong rising air currents. This convectional storm occurred near Sydney in 2002. There was heavy rain and hail. Hailstones develop when ice particles form in the cloud. The currents of air move the particles up and down in the cloud and as this happens additional layers of ice form around the nucleus. Eventually, the hailstones becomeÃ too heavy to be kept up, and they fall to the ground. This website has some useful photographs and video clips. Convectional stormsÃ affect peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives in many ways. They can present various hazards to aircraft including turbulence and freezing at high altitudes. The following is based on an extreme weather summary for south Kansas in the USA. Source: Kansas 2006 crh.noaa.gov/ict/newsletter/Spring2006.php The convective storm started when hail 5 to 10 cms diameter hit a number of rural counties. Between 6:00 and 7:00 pm, one of the super-cellular severe storms in Reno County unleashed its power and caused disastrous and tragic results. The storm produced 80-100 mph winds on its southern end which raked south and southeast Reno County. This storm then took aim at Cheney Lake and State Park. The damage at the state park was major, and included the marina, around 125 boats, 35 campers, and an unspecified number of mobile homes. One mobile home was leveled. Total damage estimated around 12.5 million dollars. Six people were injured, all of whom required transport to Wichita hospitals. One man was killed when his fishing boat was overturned. On June 30th, Southeast Kansas was hit by destructive winds and hail that reached the size of baseballs. The baseball-sized hail hit parts of Woodson County around 7:35 pm, causing around $415,000 damage to crops. As the evening progressed, the severe thunderstorms, continued to unleash 80-100 mph winds. Hardest hit was Neosho County. In Chanute, large trees were uprooted with many falling onto homes and businesses. Other homes and businesses were completely unroofed. Numerous barns and sheds were destroyed. The towns of Erie and St. Paul experienced nearly identical fates. In Erie, one home was destroyed. In St. Paul, a church steeple was completely removed. Obviously, many power lines and power poles were blown down, severing power to all three towns. This round of atmospheric mayhem was responsible for $2.873 million damage to crops and property. Another product of severe convection that drew considerable attention in 2005 was the flash flood. The first major event occurred June 8th and 9th from around 8:00 pm the evening of the 8th to the early afternoon of the 9th. Hardest hit were Butler, Harvey and Sedgwick counties. In Butler County, two families required rescues from their homes 4 miles north of Whitewater. Numerous streets were barricaded in and around El Dorado, and creeks overflowed. The most notable occurred 2 miles northeast of Elbing, where Henry Creek overflowed, closing 150th Street as well as the 150th Street Bridge. In Harvey County, widespread 12-15 inch rainfalls in approximately 10 hours resulted in evacuations in Newton, where most streets were barricaded. Perhaps the worst flooding in this event occurred in Sedgwick, where an estimated 147,515 acres of farmland were inundated totaling an estimated $1.5 million damage. In Sedgwick County, 19 homes were flooded, of which 12 were mobile homes which are particularly susceptible to storm damages. These homes were completely surrounded by flooding; which isolated their occupants from the outside world. In Mt. Hope, people required rescue from their homes. Many streets and highways were barricaded, especially across Northern Sedgwick County, where flash floods reached 6 foot depths. The flooding inundated around 75,000 acres of farmland. Total property damage was estimated at $150,000. Ã ACTIVITIES Study the article above. Summarize the impacts of the convectional storms in Kansas in a list.Produce an article on the Sydney hail storm in 1999. This could be done in Microsoft Word, Publisher, or PowerPoint.You can also download this lesson in PDF format here.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Sri Lanka Facts and History With the recent end of the Tamil Tiger insurgency, the island nation of Sri Lanka seems poised to take its place as a new economic powerhouse in South Asia. After all, Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon) has been a key trading hub of the Indian Ocean world for more than a thousand years. Capital and Major Cities Administrative Capital: Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte, metro population 2,234,289 Commercial Capital: Colombo, metro population 5,648,000 Major Cities: Kandy population 125,400Galle population 99,000Jaffna population 88,000 Government The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka has a republican form of government, with a president who is both head of government and head of state. Universal suffrage starts at age 18. The current president is Maithripala Sirisena; presidents serve six-year terms. Sri Lanka has a unicameral legislature. There are 225 seats in Parliament, and members are elected by popular vote to six-year terms.Ã The Prime Minister is Ranil Wickremesinghe. The president appoints judges to both the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals. There are also subordinate courts in each of the countrys nine provinces. People Sri Lankas total population is approximately 20.2 million as of the 2012 census. Nearly three-quarters, 74.9%, are ethnic Sinhalese. Sri Lankan Tamils, whose ancestors came to the island from southern India centuries ago, make up about 11% of the population, while more recent Indian Tamil immigrants, brought in as agricultural labor by the British colonial government, represent 5%. Another 9% of Sri Lankans are the Malays and Moors, descendants of Arab and Southeast Asian traders who plied the Indian Ocean monsoon winds for more than a thousand years. There are also tiny numbers of Dutch and British settlers, and aboriginal Veddahs, whose ancestors arrived at least 18,000 years ago. Languages The official language of Sri Lanka is Sinhala. Both Sinhala and Tamil are considered national languages; only about 18% of the population speaks Tamil as a mother tongue, however. Other minority languages are spoken by about 8% of Sri Lankans. In addition, English is a common language of trade, and approximately 10% of the population are conversant in English as a foreign language. Religion Sri Lanka has a complex religious landscape. Almost 70% of the population are Theravada Buddhists (mainly the ethnic Sinhalese), while most Tamils are Hindu, representing 15% of Sri Lankans. Another 7.6% are Muslims, particularly the Malay and Moor communities, belonging primarily to the Shafii school within Sunni Islam. Finally, about 6.2% of Sri Lankans are Christians; of those, 88% are Catholic and 12% are Protestant. Geography Sri Lanka is a teardrop-shaped island in the Indian Ocean, southeast of India. It has an area of 65,610 square kilometers (25,332 square miles), and is mostly flat or rolling plains. However, the highest point in Sri Lanka is Pidurutalagala, at an impressive 2,524 meters (8,281 feet) in altitude. The lowest point is sea level. Sri Lanka sits at the middle of a tectonic plate, so it does not experience volcanic activity or earthquakes. However, it was heavily impacted by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, which killed more than 31,000 people in this mostly low-lying island nation. Climate Sri Lanka has a maritime tropical climate, meaning that it is warm and humid throughout the year. Average temperatures ranges from 16Ã °C (60.8Ã °F) in the central highlands to 32Ã °C (89.6Ã °F) along the northeast coast. High temperatures in Trincomalee, in the northeast, can top 38Ã °C (100Ã °F). The entire island generally has humidity levels between 60 and 90% year-round, with the higher levels during the two long monsoonal rainy seasons (May to October and December to March). Economy Sri Lanka has one of the strongest economies in South Asia, with a GDP of $234 billion US (2015 estimate), a per capita GDP of $11,069, and a 7.4% annual growth rate. It receives substantial remittances from Sri Lankan overseas workers, mostly in the Middle East; in 2012, Sri Lankans abroad sent home about $6 billion US. Major industries in Sri Lanka include tourism; rubber, tea, coconut and tobacco plantations; telecommunications, banking and other services; and textile manufacturing. The unemployment rate and percentage of the population living in poverty are both an enviable 4.3%. The islands currency is called the Sri Lankan rupee. As of May, 2016, the exchange rate was $1 US 145.79 LKR. History The island of Sri Lanka appears to have been inhabited since at least 34,000 years before the present. Archaeological evidence suggests that agriculture began as early as 15,000 BCE, perhaps reaching the island along with the ancestors of the aboriginal Veddah people. Sinhalese immigrants from northern India likely reached Sri Lanka around the 6th century BCE. They may have established one of the earliest great trade emporiums on earth; Sri Lankan cinnamon appears in Egyptian tombs from 1,500 BCE. By about 250 BCE, Buddhism had reached Sri Lanka, brought by Mahinda, the son of Ashoka the Great of the Mauryan Empire. The Sinhalese remained Buddhist even after most mainland Indians had converted to Hinduism. Classical Sinhalese civilization relied on complicated irrigation systems for intensive agriculture; it grew and prospered from 200 BCE to about 1200 CE. Trade flourished between China, Southeast Asia, and Arabia by the first few centuries of the common era. Sri Lanka was a key stopping point on the southern, or sea-bound, branch of the Silk Road. Ships stopped there not only to restock on food, water and fuel, but also to buy cinnamon and other spices. The ancient Romans called Sri Lanka Taprobane, while Arab sailors knew it as Serendip. In 1212, ethnic Tamil invaders from the Chola Kingdom in southern India drove the Sinhalese south. The Tamils brought Hinduism with them. In 1505, a new kind of invader appeared on Sri Lankas shores. Portuguese traders wanted to control the sea-lanes between the spice islands of southern Asia; they also brought missionaries, who converted a small number of Sri Lankans to Catholicism. The Dutch, who expelled the Portuguese in 1658, left an even stronger mark on the island. The legal system of the Netherlands forms the basis for much of modern Sri Lankan law. In 1815, a final European power appeared to take control of Sri Lanka. The British, already holding the mainland of India under their colonial sway, created the Crown Colony of Ceylon. UK troops defeated the last native Sri Lankan ruler, the King of Kandy, and began to govern Ceylon as an agricultural colony that grew rubber, tea, and coconuts. After more than a century of colonial rule, in 1931, the British granted Ceylon limited autonomy. During World War II, however, Britain used Sri Lanka as a forward post against the Japanese in Asia, much to the irritation of Sri Lankan nationalists. The island nation became fully independent on February 4, 1948, several months after the Partition of India and the creation of independent India and Pakistan in 1947. In 1971, tensions between the Sinhalese and Tamil citizens of Sri Lanka bubbled over into armed conflict. Despite attempts at a political solution, the country erupted into the Sri Lankan Civil War in July of 1983; the war would continue until 2009, when government troops defeated the last of the Tamil Tiger insurgents.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Myth into Film - Essay Example This paper will comprehensively explore the similarities and difference between the two and my deduction of what each author is trying to bring out in their story. Despite Euripides Medea and DassinÃ¢â¬â¢s A Dream of PassionÃ¢â¬â¢s different settings, they have some similarities. Both Medea and A Dream of Passion, follow the tales of women who are forced by circumstances to kill their children, born and unborn, to satisfy their interests. The two stories exhibit high emotions of love, passion and vengeance. In EuripidesÃ¢â¬â¢ play, Medea, the protagonist Medea is so much in love with her husband Jason. She feels extremely betrayed by her husband when she learns of his unfaithfulness and plans to marry Creons daughter. She cannot bear her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s betrayal and feels a great desire to carry out revenge on him. Creon, on the other hand, anticipates Medea to retaliate. To protect his daughter from MedeaÃ¢â¬â¢s wrath; he decides to send Medea into exile. Eventually, Medea succeeds in killing Glauce, Creon and her three children. She inflicts unimaginable pain on her husband not only by the killings, but also by her decision to escap e to Athens with the corpses of her children. JasonÃ¢â¬â¢s betrayal of her love leads her to commit such heinous crimes. Like in Medea, A Dream of Passion presents a similar scenario. Maya goes through the same situation as Medea but in a different context. In A Dream of Passion, The character, Brenda represents the real Medea, and she killed her three children to carry out revenge on her husband. However, MayaÃ¢â¬â¢s similarities to Medea are brought out through her interactions with Brenda. Like Brenda killed her children, Maya carried out an abortion. Thus they are both equal in that they killed despite the motive behind their killings. Brenda killed for vengeance while Maya killed to be a star, to be a celebrity, prosperous and independent.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Primary and Community Care Policy - Essay Example These families need to be supported on the huge responsibilities (Department of Health 2008). Primary care is diverse and wide in terms of its healthcare with different skilled people who work for the care of patients. Patients can be taken care of by different community service in the comfort of their homes (Walshe and Smith 2011). This paper will review the health care policy relevant to the primary or community care setting, and identify the key factors of the policy and analyze how effective the policy has been in the primary and community environment. This document will analyze some of the major policies that are often discussed. Health care policy Health care policy is the strategic plan, and decision performed to achieve specific health care goal within a society. An explicit health care can make up for a couple of important things (Nolan and Badger 2002). It sets up a vision for the future that assists in establishing targets of reference for the short and medium term goals. It lays down the priorities, and the role expected of different groups, and it creates consensus and informs people on the better way of life. Various policies have been placed to ensure that children are in a position to have the best start of life, and support their families need to give them in the form of a chance to fulfill their potentials. In essence, children and young adults with a grievous life condition are in positions that best equate them to access of high-quality, family centered, sustainable care support, with services provided in a selected setting, as stated by the children, and their familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ desires (Nolan and Badger 2002). The services shall be commissioned and delivered in line with identified local need and national policy and driven by best practice. These practices are associated with the myriad of services that are generally provided in the proposed settings, those that have been chosen by the children, and their familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Sines et al 2009). Moreover, disabled children will be considered both at local and national priority in all the settings that the government shall be undertaking. The healthcare communities must be in positions where they can deliver excellent health care services to all their clients without discrimination of the payment of services. According to Smith and Goodwin 2005, better care in all the settings ensures help in improving the outcome for children, young people together with families who might be living with limiting and threatening health conditions (Ashworth et al 2002). Effect created by policy in primary and community environment. Partnership working The government is determined on working together with other partners in the voluntary and private sector in sharing the agenda towards the realization of better changes in the improvement of lives for children who experience life-limiting and life-threatening conditions like the disabled persons. Patient care teams are professionals who are div erse in their line of duty. In fact, the professionals continually communicate on the best ways of taking care and attending to different patient groups, and participate in the care through out. Good working teams are depicted by strong working leadership that is effective, shared obligations, common visions, and cooperation, and obedience, members must also invest in their talents, defined roles, and responsibilities (Cox and Hill 2010). This
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Public Enterprises Essay What are the Objectives of Public Enterprises? SOUMYA SINGH In India, public enterprises have been assigned the task of realising the objectives laid down in the Directive Principles of State Policy. Public sector as a whole seeks: (a) to gain control of the commanding heights of the economy, (b) to promote critical development in terms of social gain or strategic value rather than on consideration of profit, and (c) to provide commercial surplus with which to finance further economic development. The main objectives of public enterprises in India are as follows: 1. Economic development: Public enterprises were set up to accelerate the rate of economic growth in a planned manner. These enterprises have created a sound industrial base for rapid industrialisation of the country. They are expected to provide infrastructure facilities for promoting balanced and diversified economic structure of development. 2. Self-reliance: Another aim of public enterprises is to promote self-reliance in strategic sectors of the national economy. For this purpose, public enterprises have been set up in transportation, communication, energy, petro-chemicals, and other key and basic industries. . Development of backward Areas: Several public enterprises were established in backward areas to reduce regional imbalances in development. Balanced development of different parts of the country is necessary for social as well as strategic reasons. 4. Employment generation: Unemployment has become a serious problem in India. Public enterprises seek to offer gainful employment to millions. In order to protect jobs, several sick units in the private sector have been nationalised. 5. Economic surplus: Public enterprises seek to generate and mobilise surplus for reinvestment. These enterprises earn money and mobilise public savings for industrial development. 6. Egalitarian society: An important objective of public enterprises is to prevent concentration of economic power and growth of private monopolies. Public sector helps the Government to enforce social control on trade and industry for ensuring equitable distribution of goods and services. Public enterprises protect and promote small scale industries. 7. Consumer welfare: Public enterprises seek to protect consumers from exploitation and profiteering by ensuring supply of essential commodities at cheaper prices. They aim at stabilising prices. 8. Public utilities: Private sector is guided by profit motive. Therefore, it is reluctant to invest money in public utility services like water supply, gas, electricity, public transport. Therefore, the Government has to assume responsibility for providing such services. 9. Defence: Government has to set up public enterprises for production of defence equipment. Supply of such equipment cannot be entrusted for private sector due to the need for utmost secrecy. 10. Labour welfare: Public enterprises serve as model employers. They ensure welfare and social security of employees. Many public enterprises have developed townships, schools, college and hospitals for their workers. Role and Rationale of Public Enterprises The public sector has been playing a vital role in the economic development of the country. In fact the public sector has come to occupy such an important place in our economy that on its effective performance depends largely the achievement of the countrys economic and social goals. Public sector is considered a powerful engine of economic development and an important instrument of self-reliance. The main contributions of public enterprises to the countrys economy may be described as follows: 1. Filling of gaps: At the time of independence, there existed serious gaps in the industrial structure of the country, particularly in the field of heavy industries. Basic and key industries require huge capital investment, involve considerable risk and suffer from long gestation periods. Private sector concerns do not come forward to establish such industries. Public sector has helped to fill up these gaps. The basic infrastructure required for rapid industrialisation has been built up, through the production of strategic capital goods. The public sector has considerably widened the industrial base of the country and speeded up the pace of industrialisation. 2. Employment: Public sector has created millions of jobs to tackle the unemployment problem in the country. Public sector accounts for about two-third of the total employment in the organised industrial sector in India. By taking over many sick units, the public sector has protected the employment of millions. Public sector has also contributed a lot towards the improvement of working and living conditions of workers by serving as a model employer. 3. Balanced regional development: Private industries tend to concentrate in certain regions while other regions remain backward. Public sector undertakings have located their plants in backward and untraded parts of the country. These areas lacked basic industrial and civic facilities like electricity, water supply, township and manpower. Public enterprises have developed these facilities thereby bringing about complete transformation in the social-economic life of the people in these regions. Steel plants of Bhilai, Rourkela and Durgapur; fertilizer factory at Sindri, machine tool plants in Rajasthan, precision instruments plants in Kerala and Rajasthan, etc. are a few examples of the development of backward regions by the public sector. 4. Optimum utilisation of resources: Public enterprises make better utilisation of scarce resources of the country. They are big in size and able to enjoy the benefits of large scale operations. They help to eliminate wasteful completion and ensure full use of installed capacity. Op timum utilisation of resources results in better and cheaper production. 5. Mobilisation of surplus: The profits earned by public enterprises are reinvested for expansion and diversification. Moreover, public sector concerns like banks and financial nstitutions mobilise scattered public savings thereby helping the process of capital formation in the country. Public enterprises earn considerable foreign exchange through exports. 6. Self reliance: Public enterprises have reduced considerably the need for imports by producing new and better products within the country. These enterprises are also earning considerable amount of foreign exchange through exports. 7. Socialistic pattern of society: Public sector is an instrument for realising social objectives. Public enterprises help to check concentration of wealth and private monopolies. These enterprises can serve as powerful means of economic and social change. 8. Public welfare: Public enterprises help in the establishment of a welfare state in the country. These enterprises supply essential commodities at cheaper rates. A proper balance between demand and supply is created to protect consumers against exploitation by profit hungry businessmen. Public enterprises also protect and promote the interests of workers. Criticism of Public Enterprises [Arguments against Public Enterprises] Public enterprises are opposed on account of weaknesses in their organisation and working. These enterprises generally suffer from the following problems: 1. Delay in completion: Often a very long time is taken in the establishment and completion of public enterprises. Delay in completion leads to increase in the cost of establishment and benefits extracted from them are delayed. 2. Faulty evaluation: Public enterprises are in some cases set upon political considerations. There is no proper evaluation of demand and supply and expected costs and benefits. There are no clear cut objectives and guidelines. In the absence of proper project planning there is under- utilisation of capacity and wastage of national resources. . Heavy overhead costs: Public enterprises often spend huge amounts on providing housing and other amenities to employees. Though such investment is useful for employees but it takes away a large part of capital and the project suffers from financial difficulties. 4. Poor returns: Majority of the public enterprises in India are incurring loss. In some of them the profits earned do not yield a reasonable return on huge investment. Lack of effective financial controls, wasteful expenditure and dogmatic pricing policy result in losses 5. Inefficient management: Due to excessive centralisation of authority and lack of motivation public enterprises are managed inefficiently. High level posts are often occupied by persons lacking necessary expertise but enjoying political support. 6. Political interference: There is frequent interference from politicians and civil servants in the working of public enterprises. Such interference leaves little scope for initiative and freedom of action. Public enterprises enjoy little autonomy and flexibility of operations. 7. Labour problems: In the absence of proper manpower planning public enterprises suffer from over-staffing. Jobs are created to fulfil employment goals of the Government. Guarantee of job in these enterprises encourages trade unions to be militant in pursuing their aims. Growth of Public Enterprises in India At the time of independence, public sector in India was confined mainly to railways, communications, defence production and public utility services. Since then the growth of public enterprises has been very rapid. Now public sector consists of public utilities (e. g. , railways, post and telegraph, etc), manufacturing concerns (e. g. , BHEL, SAIL, etc. ), trading organisations (e. g. STC, MMTC, etc. ), service organisations (e. g. , NIDC, RITES, etc. ). SAIL, a Maharatna Company of Govt. of India, is the worlds leading and Indias largest steel producer with an annual turnover of around Rs. 50,348 crore (FY11-12). It operates and owns 5 integrated steel plants at Rourkela, Bhilai, Durgapur, Bokaro and Burnpur and 3 special steel plants at Salem, Durgapur and Bhadravati. As part of its g lobal ambition the Company is implementing a massive expansion plan involving project work of building/adding new facilites with emphasis on state of the art green technology. List of Maharatna, Navratna and Miniratna CPSEs As per available information (as on February, 2013) Maharatna CPSEs Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited Coal India Limited GAIL (India) Limited Indian Oil Corporation Limited NTPC Limited Oil amp; Natural Gas Corporation Limited Steel Authority of India Limited Navratna CPSEs Bharat Electronics Limited Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited National Aluminium Company Limited NMDC Limited Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited Oil India Limited Power Finance Corporation Limited Power Grid Corporation of India Limited Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited Rural Electrification Corporation Limited Shipping Corporation of India Limited Miniratna Category I CPSEs Airports Authority of India Antrix Corporation Limited Balmer Lawrie amp; Co. Limited Bharat Dynamics Limited BEML Limited Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Bridge amp; Roof Company (India) Limited Central Warehousing Corporation Central Coalfields Limited Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited Cochin Shipyard Limited Container Corporation of India Limited Dredging Corporation of India Limited Engineers India Limited Ennore Port Limited Garden Reach Shipbuilders amp; Engineers Limited Goa Shipyard Limited Hindustan Copper Limited HLL Lifecare Limited Hindustan Newsprint Limited Hindustan Paper Corporation Limited Housing amp; Urban Development Corporation Limited India Tourism Development Corporation Limited Indian Railway Catering amp; Tourism Corporation Limited IRCON International Limited KIOCL Limited Mazagaon Dock Limited Mahanadi Coalfields Limited Manganese Ore (India) Limited Mangalore Refinery amp; Petrochemical Limited Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited MMTC Limited MSTC Limited National Fertilizers Limited National Seeds Corporation Limited NHPC Limited Northern Coalfields Limited Numaligarh Refinery Limited ONGC Videsh Limited Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited Projects amp; Development India Limited Railtel Corporation of India Limited Rashtriya Chemicals amp; Fertilizers Limited RITES Limited SJVN Limited Security Printing and Minting Corporation of India Limited South Eastern Coalfields Limited State Trading Corporation of India Limited Telecommunications Consultants India Limited THDC India Limited Western Coalfields Limited WAPCOS Limited Miniratna Category-II CPSEs Bharat Pumps amp; Compressors Limited Broadcast Engineering Consultants (I) Limited Central Mine Planning amp; Design Institute Limited Ed. CIL (India) Limited Engineering Projects (India) Limited FCI Aravali Gypsum amp; Minerals India Limited Ferro Scrap Nigam Limited HMT (International) Limited HSCC (India) Limited India Trade Promotion Organisation Indian Medicines amp; Pharmaceuticals Corporation Limited M E C O N Limited National Film Development Corporation Limited National Small Industries Corporation Limited P E C Limited Rajasthan Electronics amp; Instruments Limited
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Bram Stoker's Dracula Meets Hollywood For more than 100 years, Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s Victorian novel, Dracula, has remained one of the most successful and revered novels ever published. Since its release in 1897, no other literary publication has been the subject of cinematic reproduction as much as Dracula. Dracula has involuntarily become the most media friendly personality of the 20th century. When a novel, such as Dracula, is transformed into a cinematic version, the end product is usually mediocre and provides non-existing justice to the pain staking work endured by the author. Due to production costs and financial restrictions, the director and screenplay writer can never fully reproduce an entire literary work into a screen version. With the complications of time restriction in major motion pictures, a full-length novel is compacted into a two-hour film. This commonly leads to the interference in the sequence of events, alternation of plots and themes, and the elimination of important characters or events. But the one true adversary of novel-based films is Hollywood fabrication. Producers, directors, and playwrights add or eliminate events and characters that might or might not pertain to the storyline for the sake of visual appeal, therefore defacing the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s work. The above explanations have not paralyzed the countless attempts made by directors to bring the legendary Dracula to the big screen. Some cinematic reproductions of the novel have been more successful and critically acclaimed than others. According to Stuart, Ã¢â¬Å" From 1897 to 1993 there have been at least 600 vampire movies. Dracula has been portrayed on film at least 130 timesÃ¢â¬ (Stuart 217). But three versions of the genre have emerged as the most d... ...James Craig. Dracula in the Dark: The Dracula Film Adaptations. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1997. Skal, David J. The Monster Show: A Culture History of Horror. New York: W.W.Norton & Co., 1993. Silver, Alain, and James Ursini. The Vampire Film: From Nosferatu to Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dracula. New York: Limelight Editions, 1994. Tibbetts, John C., and James M. Welsh. Novels into Films: The Encyclopedia of Movie Adapted from Books. New York: Checkmark Books, 1999. Filmography Browning, T. (Director), & Fort, G. (Screenplay). (1931). Dracula [Motion Picture]. United States: Universal Studios Murnau, F.W. (Director). (1922). Nosferatu: Eine Symphonie des Grauens [Motion Picture] Germany: Prana Films Coppola, Francis F. (Director), & Hart, James V. (Screenplay). (1992). Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dracula [Motion Picture]. United States: Columbia Pictures
Monday, November 11, 2019
For most of its history, western political theory has ignored women. Women have seldom appeared in its analyses of who should have power, when it finally decided to notice women it usually defended their exclusion from public affairs and their confinement to the home; only rarely have women been seen as political animals worthy of serious consideration. The inequalities that exist between men and women are seen as of little practical importance and theoretical interest. Feminist political theory however, sees womenÃ¢â¬â¢s situation as central to political analysis, its focuses on why in most societies men appear to have more power and privilege than women and how can this be changed. The term feminist came into use during the 1880Ã¢â¬â¢s, indicating support for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s equal legal, economic, social and political rights with men. (Bryson, 2003) Feminism reflects the varied needs and perceptions of women in different societies and situations. Feminists argue that all women have the right to education, employment, political participation and full legal equality. Although strongly opposed in the past, they are largely accepted in the west today. However, women still remain disadvantaged despite gaining legal rights. (Bryson, 2003) All feminist do not think alike. Depending on time, culture and country feminism around the world have sometimes had different causes and goals. The labels help mark the range of different approaches, perspectives and frameworks a variety have used to shape both their explanations for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s oppression and their proposed solutions for its elimination. The three groups of feminist theories I will seek to analyse in order to assess their contributions against what is known about Caribbean women and their realities in this essay are Liberal, Radical and Black feminist perspectives. One thing we know about Caribbean women is that they have always worked. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s position in the Caribbean has been characterised by a dual work role, they engage in both household and extra household work, in order to provide for their families. Evidence has shown, that after slavery the tradition of female labour continued. Joycelin Massiah states that black women had no choice but to work, because the idea of man as the breadwinner was unrealistic and unattainable. Women were forced to take the major responsibility of their households because a large number of men had emigrated. Erna Brodber examined the role of women in some Caribbean countries. She states that despite the public image of womanhood which stressed on the abstention from physical work for elite woman, Caribbean women continued to seek work outside the household and support themselves. Brodber also states that images of white women portray them as Ã¢â¬Å"delicateÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"unassumingÃ¢â¬ , the black woman is portrayed as Ã¢â¬Å"hardworking to the point of being comicalÃ¢â¬ . (Massiah, 1986) Work outside the household however did not free Caribbean women from their household responsibilities; these women still had to ensure their husbands were still taken care of. Men in the Caribbean societies felt that because of economic circumstances, females should be employed outside the home and should contribute to the expenses. They also believe that domestic duties should still remain the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility, even if she is employed. In the public domain, women defer widely to male authority and decision making, but in the domestic domain, she exercises power. (Massiah, 1986) Radical feminism claimed to go to the roots of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s oppression, and it proclaimed itself as a theory of, by and for women; as such, it was based firmly in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s own experiences and perceptions. Secondly, it saw the oppression of women as the most fundamental and universal form of domination, and its aim was to understand and develop strategies for the end of that oppression. Thirdly, women as a group had interests opposed to those of men; these interests united them in a common sisterhood that transcended the division of class and race, and meant that women should struggle together to achieve their own liberation. (Bryson, 2003) Radical feminism names all women as part of an oppressed group, stressing that no woman can walk down the street or even live in her home safely without fear of violation from men. French feminist Christine Delphy points out that like all oppressed people, many women do not like to accept that they are part of an oppressed group, developing various forms of denial in order to avoid identification. To the radical feminists, patriarchy is the oppressing structure of male domination. Radical feminism makes male control visible as it is exercised in every sphere of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, both public and private. It stresses that Ã¢â¬ËemancipationÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËequalityÃ¢â¬â¢ on male terms is not enough. A total revolution of the social structures and the elimination of the processes of patriarchy are essential. (Rowland & Klein, 1991) Patriarchy is the domination of men over women. Kate MilletÃ¢â¬â¢s early work (1971) is a good example of the approach that Ã¢â¬Ësex is a status category with political implicationsÃ¢â¬â¢. Patriarchy, dominates over class, religion, race and culture. Patriarchy is a system of structures and institutions created by men in order to sustain and recreate male power and female subordination. Institutional structures like the law, religion, the family, have ideologies which perpetuate the naturally inferior position of women; socialisation processes to ensure that women and men develop behaviour and belief systems appropriate to the powerful or powerless group to which they belong. These structures are dominated by men who ensure that they maintain these positions. Within the private domain of the family, men have structured a system whereby womanÃ¢â¬â¢s reproductive capacity leaves her vulnerable and powerless, domestically exploited, and entrapped in economic dependence. (Rowland & Klein, 1991) The family is maintained through the notion of romantic love between men and women, when in fact marriage contracts traditionally have an economic base. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s labour within the family, which has been unpaid and unacknowledged, is defined as Ã¢â¬Ëlabour of loveÃ¢â¬â¢. Women Ã¢â¬Ëby natureÃ¢â¬â¢ are said to be passive, submissive and willing to be led. Processes like socialisation of children encourage this situation to continue. Patriarchy has a material base in 2 senses. First, the economic systems are structured so that women have difficulty getting paid labour in society which values only paid labour and in which money is the currency of power. Women without economic independence cannot sustain themselves without a breadwinner. They cannot leave a brutal husband, cannot withdraw sexual, emotional and physical servicing from men, they cannot have equal say in decisions affecting their own lives. Radical feminists have therefore stressed the necessity for women to exercise economic power in their own lives. The second material base is the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s body. Women in marriage are seen to be Ã¢â¬ËownedÃ¢â¬â¢ by their husbands and cannot bring a civil case of rape. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies are advertised and pornography alike objectified and defined as Ã¢â¬ËotherÃ¢â¬â¢ and available for male use. Rowland & Klein, 1991) Radical feminists sees the oppression of women as universal, crossing race and cultural boundaries, as well as those of class and other structures like age and physical ability. One of the basic tenets of radical feminism is that any woman in the world has more in common with any other woman regardless of class, race, age, ethnicity, nationality, than any woman has with any man. In Sisterhood is Global (1984) Robin Morgan draws together contributions from feminists in seventy countries, the majority of which are third world countries. She begins with a quote about the global position of women in the report to the UN Commission on the states of women. Ã¢â¬ËWhile women represent half the global population and one third of the labour force, they receive one tenth of the world income and own less than one percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s property. They are also responsible for two thirds of all working hoursÃ¢â¬â¢. In the developing world women are responsible for more than fifty percent of all food production. In the industrial nations women are still paid only half to three quarters of menÃ¢â¬â¢s wages. Most of the world are starving are women and children. Women in all countries bear the double burden of unpaid housework in association with any paid work they do. Radical feminists thus hold that women are oppressed primarily and in the first instance as women. But because of differences in their lives created by, for example culture and class, women experience oppression differently. (Rowland & Klein, 1991) Black feminist theorising has made critical contributions to feminist epistemology. The theory comprises of a body of work by black feminist intellectuals reacting to the failure of existing feminist explanatory framework to adequately comprehend the realities of black women. Feminists like Sojourner Truth, Audre Lorde, Patricia Bell, Patricia Hill Collins as well as many others interrogated existing feminist theories and found them lacking, as they fully ignored or denied black womenÃ¢â¬â¢s specific experiences. For instance Sojourner TruthÃ¢â¬â¢s powerful statement on racial inequalities Ã¢â¬ËAinÃ¢â¬â¢t I A WomanÃ¢â¬â¢ was a 19th Century deconstruction of the notion of a global, common womanhood and an insistence on inserting black womanhood in the concept of what it meant to be a woman. In her speech Truth argued that white women were placed on a pedestal and gave them certain privileges (mostly that of not working), this attitude was not extended to black women. Speaking of the U. S. A in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s Audre Lorde stated, Ã¢â¬Å"by and large, within the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movement today, white women focus upon their oppression as woman and ignore differences of race, sexual preference, class and age. (Barriteau, 2006) The work of black feminists reveals hierarchies of power within categories of race, class, gender, patriarchal relations, sexuality and sexual orientation. Black feminism demonstrates that white or other feminist theorising refuses or fails to recognise race as a social relation of domination within feminism and society. Radical, socialist and liberal feminist had examined other oppressive social relations but none had made race central to their analysis, black feminist theory exposes racism. They focus on difference in order to understand problems of oppression. Audre Lorde points out that white radical feminist Mary Daly images white women as Goddesses, with African women entering her analysis Ã¢â¬Ëonly as victims and preyers upon each otherÃ¢â¬â¢. Here Lorde exposes a key distortion that is similar to how early development discourses constructed women in the Caribbean. Women in the south, whether Caribbean, or African were seen as helpless victims in need of international development intervention. (Barriteau, 2006) This theory holds that the constructed invisibility if black womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives must be challenged. For example, much of the history of the West Indies was based on the activities of black men. Black feminist thinkers underline the importance of using lived experiences as a criterion for generating knowledge. Deborah KingÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of multiple jeopardy or multiple consciousness shifted the conception of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s oppression as confined within ethnic and racial boundaries. She was concerned with the invisibility of black women. She noted that class inequality compounded the problem of racism and sexism for black women and felt that class constituted a third jeopardy. She therefore defined multiple jeopardy as, a way to understand the ways in which various forms of oppression interact in ways that negatively affect the lives of black women. Much of feminist theory represents white ethnocentric feminist theorising and is therefore inadequate in not addressing the concerns of other women, especially black women. (Barriteau, 2006) Unlike radical feminism, black feminism goes on to demonstrate how racist relations follow black women into the private realm. Experiences of relations of oppression within households differ for black or minority women in a racist state. Central to black feminist theorising is the knowledge that patriarchal relations structure womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives very differently to their male peers. The Ã¢â¬Ërule of the fatherÃ¢â¬â¢ enforces menÃ¢â¬â¢s power in the family and society. In the Caribbean, men have assumed the role of patriarchs. Black feminist theory reveals that there are other dimensions to black womenÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences of the home that are not captured by other feminist theories, especially for those black women who for centuries have been obliged to work outside the home, whether in fields, factories or the homes of others. Many of these women instead of longing to be liberated from the home, they yearn for the opportunity to go home or stay at home. Hazel Carby noted that ideologies of black female domesticity and motherhood have been constructed through black womenÃ¢â¬â¢s employment in chattel positions as domestic workers and surrogate mothers to white families rather than in relation to their own families. (Barriteau, 2006) In terms of sexuality, black women have been stereotyped as having wild and uncontrollable sexual urges. Black women were presented as either whorish or unsexed; they were either nanny or jezebel. Evelyn Hammond has argued that black womenÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality is constructed in opposition to that of white women. In the struggle for sexual liberation, many white women demanded reproductive technologies in order to say yes to sex, while black women wanted autonomy and freedom from a racist and intrusive state in order to say no. (Barriteau, 2006) Criticisms of black feminist theory are that sometimes there is the impression that all oppressions are equal, and it has been critiqued for assuming that black women have a superior standpoint in the world. There is also a sense in which persons of African descent are privileged in black feminist thought. (Bryson, 2003) The final theory I will analyse is the liberal feminist theory. Liberalism is based on the principle of individual liberty, in which every person should be allowed to exercise freedom of choice. Each individual should be given equal opportunities and civil rights, but that was conceived of as a privilege that should extend to European men. When it comes to state interventions in the private sphere, liberals agree that the less we see of Big brother in our homes the better. (Tong, 2009) Liberal feminist Mary Wollstonecraft has been very influential in her writing, Ã¢â¬ËA Vindication of the Rights of WomanÃ¢â¬â¢. She wrote at a time when the economic and social position of European women was in decline. These women were left at home with little productive work to do, and they were married to relatively wealthy professional men. These women had no incentive to work outside the home or, if they had several servants inside it. (Tong, 2009) Middle class ladies were, in WollstonecraftÃ¢â¬â¢s estimation, Ã¢â¬ËkeptÃ¢â¬â¢ women who sacrificed health, liberty and virtue for whatever prestige, pleasure and power their husbands could provide. She denied that women are, by nature, more pleasure seeking and pleasure giving than men. She reasoned that if men were confined to the same cages that trap women, men would develop the same flawed characters. She stated that women lacked the power of reason because they were encouraged to indulge themselves and please others. She believed that women should have the same access to education as men. She believed that women should experience full personhood. Other liberalists John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor Mill believed women needed suffrage in order to become menÃ¢â¬â¢s equals. They claimed the vote gave people the power to express their own political views but also change those systems, structures, and attitudes that contribute to their own and others oppression. (Tong, 2009) Betty Friedan in the Feminist Mystique, studies the lives of white middle class housewives living in the suburbs. She described the dissatisfaction of these women as the problem with no name. She claimed that these women led unfulfilling lives in their traditional roles as mother and wives. She argued that a more meaningful course for these women was to have the opportunity of full time work in the public sphere. She believed that the absence from the home would make children and husbands more self sufficient. She felt that by limiting women to being wives and mothers was limiting their full human development. She also believed that women would always have to work harder than men. (Bryson, 2003) The main critique of liberal feminism is that of racism and classism, they focused primarily on white, middle class women. They also privileged so called male values. They also continue to distinguish between the private and public lives of people without understanding that the private and public sphere often intersect. In conclusion, feminist epistemology has transformed the world for many Caribbean women, as it questions womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lived experiences and their roles in identity formation. Caribbean women in their roles have mostly preached a strong work ethic and promoted a strong social identity. The Caribbean has a legacy of race and colonial legacies, therefore the experiences and history of Caribbean women has been different. Unlike some the white middle class women in European societies that the liberal feminist talk about, Caribbean women have always had to work and frequently they have been the principal breadwinners in their households. But because of all the earlier groups of feminist theories about women, it paved a way for the new knowledge about Caribbean women and their realities.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Tuesday Great literature is often influenced by the lives of those who write it. Edgar Allan Poe is a clear example of a life influencing art. Two tragic events or afflictions from Edgar Allan Poe's life that influence much of his writing are violent death and the use of alcohol. Each of these reflects into two stories each. The first tragic event would be violent death. This affliction comes up in many of his pieces of writing, especially in Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Tell-Tale HeartÃ¢â¬ . Examples from the poem Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ that illustrate a heartbreaking death would be the loss ofLenore, of course. Text support is the line Ã¢â¬Å"And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floorÃ¢â¬ On many occasions Poe mentions the loss of his beloved Lenore. The violent, tragic roll comes into place when the raven says his sorrow and despair will go away nevermore. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Tell-Tale HeartÃ¢â¬ , the narrator loves this old man; however he stalks h im for 8 nights and murders him. After the murder, he buries the old man's body beneath the floor boards. These 2 tragic deaths express his feelings about how every woman he loved died a bloody, unfortunate, scary death due to tuberculosis.The Tell-Tale HeartÃ¢â¬ is a great candidate for the second tragic event or affliction as well, being the use of alcohol. It doesn't make much sense that the narrator would kill somebody he loved, right? If you notice, he mentions his Ã¢â¬Å"diseaseÃ¢â¬ , referring to alcoholism. The abuse of alcohol made him go mad. The second example out of text would be Ã¢â¬Å"The Black CatÃ¢â¬ . The narrator refers to the term Ã¢â¬Å"fiend intemperanceÃ¢â¬ When he is overtaken with alcohol, he becomes more and more irritable and moodyÃ¢â¬ ¦ so he killed his cat that loved him the more he hated it.In real life, Poe was known to use lcohol, which made him go insane. He became very irritable and crazy while under the influence and that definitely chang ed him for the worse. As you can see, Edgar Allan Poe incorporated many factors of his life and real dilemmas into his writing. Maybe that's why he was such a great writer, because it was how he expressed his true feelings. Some people play sports, some people draw, some people have other hobbies to express themselves, Poe wrote. Poe's stories and poems were indeed fiction, but definitely have a little bit of a realistic edge to them. poe essay By agullo
Thursday, November 7, 2019
The Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, often called just the Commonwealth, is an association of 53 independent nations, all but one of which are former British colonies or related dependencies. Although the British empire is mostly no more, these nations grouped together to use their history to promote peace, democracy and development. There are substantial economic ties and a shared history. List of Member Nations Origins of the Commonwealth Towards the end of the nineteenth century changes began occurring in the old British Empire, as the colonies grew in independence. In 1867 Canada became a Ã¢â¬ËdominionÃ¢â¬â¢, a self-governing nation considered equal with Britain rather than simply ruled by her. The phrase Ã¢â¬ËCommonwealth of NationsÃ¢â¬â¢ was used to describe the new relationships between Britain and colonies by Lord Rosebury during a speech in Australia in 1884. More dominions followed: Australia in 1900, New Zealand in 1907, South Africa in 1910 and the Irish Free State in 1921. In the aftermath of the First World War, the dominions sought a new definition of the relationship between themselves and Britain. At first the old Ã¢â¬ËConferences of DominionsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËImperial ConferencesÃ¢â¬â¢, begun in 1887 for discussion between the leaders of Britain and the dominions, were resurrected. Then, at the 1926 Conference, the Balfour Report was discussed, accepted and the following agreed of dominions: They are autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations. This declaration was made law by the 1931 Statute of Westminster and the British Commonwealth of Nations was created. Development of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth evolved in 1949 after the dependence of India, which was partitioned into two wholly independent nations: Pakistan and India. The latter wished to remain in the Commonwealth despite owing no Ã¢â¬Å"allegiance to the CrownÃ¢â¬ . The problem was solved by a conference of Commonwealth ministers that same year, which concluded that sovereign nations could still be a part of the Commonwealth with no implied allegiance to Britain as long as they saw the Crown as Ã¢â¬Å"the symbol of the free associationÃ¢â¬ of the Commonwealth. The name Ã¢â¬ËBritishÃ¢â¬â¢ was also dropped from the title to better reflect the new arrangement. Many other colonies soon developed into their own republics, joining the Commonwealth as they did so, especially during the second half of the twentieth century as African and Asian nations became independent. New ground was broken in 1995, when Mozambique joined, despite never having been a British colony. Not every former British colony joined the Commonwealth, nor did every nation who joined stay in it. For instance Ireland withdrew in 1949, as did South Africa (under Commonwealth pressure to curb apartheid) and Pakistan (in 1961 and 1972 respectively) although they later rejoined. Zimbabwe left in 2003, again under political pressure to reform. The Setting of Objectives The Commonwealth has a secretariat to oversee its business, but no formal constitution or international laws. It does, however, have an ethical and moral code, first expressed in the Ã¢â¬ËSingapore Declaration of Commonwealth PrinciplesÃ¢â¬â¢, issued in 1971, by which members agree to operate, including aims of peace, democracy, liberty, equality and an end to racism and poverty. This was refined and expanded in the Harare Declaration of 1991 which is often considered to have Ã¢â¬Å"set the Commonwealth on a new course: that of promoting democracy and good governance, human rights and the rule of law, gender equality and sustainable economic and social development.Ã¢â¬ (cited from the Commonwealth website, page has since moved.) An action plan has since been produced to actively follow these declarations. Failure to adhere to these aims can, and has, resulted in a member being suspended, such as Pakistan from 1999 to 2004 and Fiji in 2006 after military coups. Alternative Aims Some early British supporters of the Commonwealth hoped for different results: that Britain would grow in political power by influencing the members, regaining the global position it had lost, that economic ties would strengthen the British economy and that the Commonwealth would promote British interests in world affairs. In reality, member states have proved reluctant to compromise their new found voice, instead working out how the Commonwealth could benefit them all. Commonwealth Games Perhaps the best known aspect of the Commonwealth is the Games, a sort of mini Olympics held every four years which only accepts entrants from Commonwealth countries. It has been derided, but is often recognised as a solid way to prepare young talent for international competition. Member Nations (with date of membership) Antigua and Barbuda 1981 Australia 1931 Bahamas 1973 Bangladesh 1972 Barbados 1966 Belize 1981 Botswana 1966 Brunei 1984 Cameroon 1995 Canada 1931 Cyprus 1961 Dominica 1978 Fiji 1971 (left in 1987; rejoined 1997) Gambia 1965 Ghana 1957 Grenada 1974 Guyana 1966 India 1947 Jamaica 1962 Kenya 1963 Kiribati 1979 Lesotho 1966 Malawi 1964 Maldives 1982 Malaysia (formerly Malaya) 1957 Malta 1964 Mauritius 1968 Mozambique 1995 Namibia 1990 Nauru 1968 New Zealand 1931 Nigeria 1960 Pakistan 1947 Papua New Guinea 1975 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983 Saint Lucia 1979 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979 Samoa (formerly Western Samoa) 1970 Seychelles 1976 Sierra Leone 1961 Singapore 1965 Solomon Islands 1978 South Africa 1931 (left in 1961; rejoined 1994) Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon) 1948 Swaziland 1968 Tanzania 1961(As Tanganyika; became Tanzania in 1964 after union with Zanzibar) Tonga 1970 Trinidad and Tobago 1962 Tuvalu 1978 Uganda 1962 United Kingdom 1931 Vanuatu 1980 Zambia 1964 Zanzibar 1963 (United with Tanganyika to form Tanzania)
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Dangerous Household Chemicals in Common Products Many common household chemicals are dangerous. They may be reasonably safe when used as directed, yet contain toxic chemicals or degrade over time into a more dangerous chemical.Ã Dangerous Household Chemicals Heres a list of some of the most dangerous household chemicals, including the ingredients to watch for and the nature of the risk. Air Fresheners.Ã Air fresheners may contain any of a number of dangerous chemicals. Formaldehyde irritates the lungs and mucous membranes and may cause cancer. Petroleum distillates are flammable, irritate the eyes, skin, and lungs, and may cause fatal pulmonary edema in sensitive individuals. Some air fresheners contain p-dichlorobenzene, which is a toxic irritant. The aerosol propellants used in some products may be flammable and may cause nervous system damage if inhaled.Ammonia.Ã Ammonia is a volatile compound that can irritate the respiratory system and mucous membranes if inhaled, can cause a chemical burn if it is spilled on skin, and will react with chlorinated products (e.g., bleach) to produce deadly chloramine gas.Antifreeze.Ã Antifreeze is ethylene glycol, a chemical which is poisonous if swallowed. Breathing it can cause dizziness. Drinking antifreeze can cause serious brain, heart, kidney, and other internal organ damage. Ethylene glycol has a sweet flavor, so it is attractive to kids and pets. Antifreeze typically contains a chemical to make it taste bad, but the flavor is not always a sufficient deterrent. The sweet smell is enough to lure pets. Bleach.Ã Household bleach contains sodium hypochlorite, a chemical that can cause irritation and damage to the skin and respiratory system if inhaled or spilled on the skin. Never mix bleach with ammonia or with toilet bowl cleaners or drain cleaners, as dangerous and possibly deadly fumes may be produced.Drain Cleaners.Ã Drain cleaners typically contain lye (sodium hydroxide) or sulfuric acid. Either chemical is capable of causing an extremely serious chemical burn if splashed on the skin. They are toxic to drink. Splashing drain cleaner in the eyes may cause blindness.Laundry Detergent.Ã Laundry detergents contain a variety of chemicals. Ingestion of cationic agents may cause nausea, vomiting, convulsion, and coma. Non-ionic detergents are irritants. Many people experience chemical sensitivity to dyes and perfumes present in some detergents.Mothballs.Ã Mothballs are either p-dichlorobenzene or naphthalene. Both chemicals are toxic and known to cause dizziness, headaches, an d irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory system. Prolonged exposure can lead to liver damage and cataract formation. Motor Oil.Ã Exposure to the hydrocarbons in motor oil can cause cancer. Many people are unaware that motor oil contains heavy metals, which can damage the nervous system and other organ systems.Oven Cleaner.Ã The danger from oven cleaner depends on its composition. Some oven cleaners contain sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, which are extremely corrosive strong bases. These chemicals can be deadly if swallowed. They can cause chemical burns on the skin or in the lungs if the fumes are inhaled.Rat Poison.Ã Rat poisons (rodenticides) are less lethal than they used to be, but remain poisonous to people and pets. Most rodenticides contain warfarin, a chemical which causes internal bleeding if ingested.Windshield Wiper Fluid.Ã Wiper fluid is toxic if you drink it, plus some of the poisonous chemicals are absorbed through theÃ skin, so it is toxic to touch. Swallowing ethylene glycol can cause brain, heart, and kidney damage, and possibly death. Inhalation can cause dizzin ess. The methanol in wiper fluid can be absorbed through the skin, inhaled, or ingested. Methanol damages brain, liver, and kidneys and can cause blindness. The isopropyl alcohol acts as a central nervous system depressant, causing drowsiness, unconsciousness, and potentially death.Ã¢â¬â¹
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Summarise Anthony Giddens' and Ulrich Beck's conceptions of risk. With reference to the wider academic literature in this M - Essay Example The current modernity is part of the radical break of the transition from industrial to a risk society. Humans must now deal with the global risks introduced by scientific and technological inventions that provide conceptual and technical tools that enable humans identify, quantify, and mitigate risks. The transformations from traditional to modern societies create fundamental societal evolutions that can provide guidelines during risk management. Beck (1992) outlines characteristics and differences between two periods that have caused the risk society. The first period is the industrial society that created a class society corresponding to the primary modernization (Beck, 1992). The second period of the risk society creates a reflexive modernity. The Post-war boom and triumph of capitalism after the cold war created a new form of social organization characterized by individualization. This individualization created successive crises caused by threats to health, economic and medical activities, and scientific environment. These challenges remain at the forefront of public debates and limit expert opinions and regulations (Beck, 1992). The challenges from the scientific environment led to the Chernobyl disaster and catastrophes in Toulouse and New York. These attacks and accidents ushered in the risk society caused by advancement in the field of social advancements created by science and capitalism. According to Beck (1992), the social transformation predominant in the western societies is one of the causes of the risk society. Modernization has led to technological and scientific progress as well as disembodied risks associated with modern technology. Advancement in technology has led to incalculability of consequences associated with the use of these technologies. This was evident during the cold war due to the military inventions of the Soviet Union (Beck, 1992). Western countries felt threatened by the weapons developed by the Soviet Union during the cold wa r. The western governments had to define enemy capabilities by estimating the number of nuclear warheads owned by the Soviet Union. The west had to pinpoint the targets of the soviet missiles and plan retaliatory attacks in case the soviet army launched attacks. These uncertainties and risks were caused by technological advancements of the modern society. Industrialization and scientific innovations had led to the development of long range nuclear warheads that caused tension between the Soviets and the West. Technological inventions pose threats such as cyber crime to the western countries. Information security is a major concern for several institutions. This has led to counter inventions that protect information and curb cyber crime. Huawei, a Chinese company, has developed hardware technologies that prevent cyber crimes to ensure data security for businesses and governments (The Economist, 2012). Globalization has helped the company expand its services from china to other region s in Africa and Asia. The company has since appealed to the British government to purchase its equipment. The government has the responsibility of protecting its citizens from some of the risks and receives blame when disaster strikes. The British signals-intelligence agency is working together with Huawei to test the equipment to protect the citizens against cyber attacks (The Economist,