Sunday, January 26, 2020
Public Opinion and Military Intervention For modern day states, especially democracies, the outcome of a military intervention is not just determined by the outcome on the battlefield but is also to a huge extent determined by the public opinion. The Ã¢â¬Å"Vietnam syndromeÃ¢â¬ and the much recognized and debated topic regarding Vietnam as a political loss for the American is deeply interconnected with public opinion on the intervention. The aim of this paper is two understand how public opinion can Ã¢â¬ËmakeÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËbreakÃ¢â¬â¢ a military intervention. I will do this by firstly looking at how an activated opinion of the masses can dictate a governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to intervene or not. Secondly, I will look at the casualty hypothesis wherein in a loss-averse public starts to view an intervention negatively as casualties start mounting up. For a long time public opinion was disregarded by academicians. Numerous communication models, like the Hypodermic Needle model or the Magic Bullet model, assumed that the public were mere consumers of information and that they lacked the element of rationality. As a result of this belief, which largely stemmed from the works of the Chicago School during the aftermath of the Second World War and the tragedy of Nazi Germany, it was believed that the public were vulnerable to any information being Ã¢â¬Å"injectedÃ¢â¬ into them as a result of which their opinion was inconsequential. It was in this context that the idea, Ã¢â¬Å"the President doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t follow public opinion, he leads itÃ¢â¬ emerged. However, this dismissal attitude towards public opinion started to change as more and more research started to point towards the inherent rationality of the public and their ability to assimilate, analyze and impact policies, especially in the case of liberal and democratic societies. Public opinion can in the words of V.O. Key be described as, Ã¢â¬Å"those opinions held by private persons which the government find it prudent to heedÃ¢â¬ . The monumental impact of public opinion can be seen through the electorate decisions that the public makes. Therefore, democratic states need to pay attention to the demands of the public and are to huge extent dictated by the public opinion. In democratic states, the civil-military relations are such that the power of decision making pertaining to military intervention largely lies with the executive and the legislative, which in turn is affected by public opinion, and not with the military. The inter-connectedness of civil-military relations is not just limited to the decision of making a military intervention or not. It includes the use of military to promote democratic values in other countries and is also reflected in the Ã¢â¬Å"cultural dimensions of strategy and policyÃ¢â¬ . In fact, post the Cold War era there has been an increased acceptance of the fact that culture, which includes identity, political culture in the Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..of the structure of decision-making and public opinion, has increasingly become a factor in determining the course of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s complex and interconnected world. Here it is important to note that every time the state makes the decision for or against a military intervention it does not proactively seek the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion. This can be attributed to the fact that the public does not always have a well articulated opinion. However, this does not mean that the public does not have any opinion; it only means that the opinion is Ã¢â¬Å"latentÃ¢â¬ . Latent public opinion refers to Ã¢â¬Å"ingrained sets of values, criteria for judgement, attitudes, preferences, dislikes Ã¢â¬â pictures in [the] head- that come into play when a relevant action, event, or proposal arisesÃ¢â¬ . It shows that the public can many a times be considered as detached and/or uniformed. However, it is important to note that an unsophisticated public is not necessarily an irrational one. Latent opinion when manifested can translate into active opinion. Therefore, it can be said that latent opinion has potential for expression- provided it is activated by some message or event. According to Mood theory that was articulated by Gabriel Almond, opinion becomes activated when two things happen simultaneously- a) events that directly threaten the normal conduct of affairs, and b) occurrence of assertive or self-confident moods among the public. Here the role of elite debate and media is crucial. A polarized public debate between key decision-makers which is covered by the media provides the public with signals that helps convert latent into activated opinion. The existence of latent public opinion is most visible in the case of foreign policy. Given the remoteness and the complexity of foreign policy the public is not very well informed about the foreign policy neither does it have a consolidated and concrete opinion on foreign policy matters. It is, particularly, difficult to assess Public opinion in the matters of Foreign policy. For instance, Public is unlikely to have refined views on issues of arms control and trade agreements as there are significant gaps in public knowledge on these issues. In the context of military intervention the public opinion is driven by two key factors- a) the relation between domestic and international politics, and b) the number of casualties sustained. Ã¢â¬ËMaking or BreakingÃ¢â¬â¢ a military intervention Two- Level Game A governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy and domestic policy have a deep impact on each other. That means a state does not intervene independent of domestic considerations. In fact, international negotiations between states, including the decision to militarily intervene, occur simultaneously with negotiations at the intra-national level. That means the executive needs to take into consideration the internal political environment while trying to deal and decide on an external policy. Economic, political and social factors all come into play while making such decisions; this is where public opinion, whether active or latent, also comes into play by either making a case for or case against military intervention. Japanese PTF Brazilian Domestic politics can have a direct bearing on international politics and vice versa. It is, therefore, important for policy makers to achieve domestic policy goals so as to maintainÃ international bargaining power. On the other hand, international negotiations must also be in tandem with domestic constraints. These premises are integral to Putnams Two-Level Game theory of international relations. At the national level, domestic groups often pressurise the government to adopt favorable policies to promote their interests. In turn the politicians seek power by forming coalitions among those groups. At the international level, national governments seek to maximize their own ability to satisfy domestic pressures, while minimizing the adverse consequences of foreign developments. Putnams theory involves two levels of interaction among players. It is important to noteÃ that the two-level game is incredibly complex; moves that are rational for a player at oneÃ stage may be injudicious for that same player at the other stage (Putnam 434). ToÃ simplify the game, it is broken down into two levels international and domestic. AtÃ Level I, the international level, bargaining between the negotiators leads to a tentative agreement. At this level of negotiations, the chief negotiator is the main negotiating force. The chief negotiator can be an individual, multiple persons, or single/multiple organizations depending on the situation. Level II, the domestic audience, constitutes separate discussions by supporters of the chiefÃ negotiator about whether to ratify the agreement. Level II can be characterized as a parliament, ratification vote, or any number of other instances requiring acceptance of the Level I agreement. The agreement formulated at Level I must be voted up or down by the constituents at Level II. Crucially, the important inter-relationship between the two levels is that any Level I agreement must be ratified by Level II (Putnam 436). Any modification of the agreement at Level II counts as a rejection of Level I and will require a re-opening of negotiations at Level I; final ratification must be voted either up or down by Level II (Putnam 437). II)Ã Causalities and Public Opinion In contemporary times the growing awareness and concern for human rights has led to the birth of a strong correlation between the number of casualties sustained and the public opinion about the military intervention. Sensitivity to causalities is believed to be the Ã¢â¬Å"AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ heel of modern-day democraciesÃ¢â¬ . Favorable public opinion is an essential element to any administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to prosecute war. This is because public opinion can constrain an administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to carry out its foreign policy goals, especially if the boundaries of what is acceptable to the public are breached. If the war drags on, casualties are sustained, the principal foreign policy objectives are considered illegitimate or the public perceives that the policy is not being successful, it may Ã¢â¬Å"push backÃ¢â¬ against or punish an administration by voting against it in the next election. This relationship is extremely strong and visible in the West as a result of, what Gerard Chaliand terms as, Ã¢â¬Å"the WestÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to stomach the lossesÃ¢â¬ . With the establishment and recognition of human rights coupled with a demographic trend that suggests lower fertility and birth rates as compared to other parts of the world ensures that each and every life counts. These trends can be seen all throughout military interventions post the Second World War- ranging from the Vietnam and Korean War to Afghanistan and Iraq War, including the humanitarian interventions in Kosovo and Somalia. As a result of a loss-averse public, the decision to intervene is to large extent determined by the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of a) the possible swiftness of an attack, and b) the mounting cost of the intervention, especially in terms of the human lives. If the public is convinced that an intervention will be quick and will not protracted then it is more likely to create a favourable environment for the intervention amongst the people. However, if there are indicators that hint towards a long drawn-out conflict then the public opinion is bound to be largely against any such intervention. This can be seen during the Gulf War during Sr. BushÃ¢â¬â¢s administration. Even though AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to go for an Ã¢â¬Ëall-outÃ¢â¬â¢ war in other countries had been largely crippled as a result of the Ã¢â¬Å"Vietnam syndromeÃ¢â¬ , America was able to make a case of its intervention in the Gulf as a result of the swiftness of the attack. Additionally, given the heavy-dependence on aerial attacks the Americans and their allies were able to minimize personal losses which created a further favourable public opinion. Having said this, the public opinion can start to wither away as the public becomes aware of the mounting casualties. Over four thousand American casualties and over four years of conflict haveÃ had a significant influence on public support for the war in Iraq. The media response toÃ the climbing casualty rate, the November 2006 mid-term election results, and recent eliteÃ political rhetoric demanding withdrawal are important indicators that public support forÃ this conflict has deteriorated. A good example of this is the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s response to the Bush administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s Iraq policy in the November 2006 election. In fact, Ã¢â¬Å"public opinion, the support and mobilization of which is required for sustaining an extended conflict, plays a critical role in resolution, especially whenÃ government preferences diverge from majority opinion.Ã¢â¬ So important is public opinionÃ that it may be AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Achilles Heel. BIBLIOGRAPHY Kim, Jiyul.Cultural Dimensions of Strategy and Policy. Strategic Studies Institute, 2009. http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=919 (accessed September 25, 2014). Key, V.O.Politics, Parties, and Pressure Groups. Crowell, 1964. Schwarz, Benjamin C.Casualties, Public Opinion and U.S. Military Intervention. Arroyo Center: RAND, 1998. Smith, Eric R.A.N.The Unchanging American Voter. California: University of California Press, 1989.  The Followership Model of Public Opinion states that the general public is more likely to be lead by the decision-makers rather than lead them.  Refer to the work of Benjamin Page and Robert Shapiro (1992)  Jiyul Kim,Cultural Dimensions of Strategy and Policy, (Strategic Studies Institute, 2009) http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=919 (accessed September 25, 2014).  V.O. Key,Politics, Parties, and Pressure Groups, (Crowell, 1964), 264.  Eric R.A.N Smith,The Unchanging American Voter, (California: University of California Press, 1989).  Benjamin C. Schwarz,Casualties, Public Opinion and U.S. Military Intervention, (Arroyo Center: RAND, 1998), chap. 1.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
The internet is approximately 40 years old and is continuing to grow at a rapid pace. This rapid growth and use of the internet for practically everything you can do in life has also cause a major increase in threats. Cyber-criminals are often breaking into security on many major websites and making the news. Information Security is turning into an important part in protect a businessÃ¢â¬â¢s information. Amazon.com website went online in 1995 (Byers, 2006). Amazon offers there services and products through the website Amazon.com to many countries around the world, which includes: United States, Canada, France, Spain, Japan, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, and China (Amazon, 2012). Amazon has been around for approximately 17 years and continuous to be a successful business. One of the reason for this is because Amazon investing time in Information Security. Amazon has a massive amount of information on servers around the globe contain sensitive information, not only information for Amazon but also for AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s customers. Some examples of the information Amazon maintains on the servers they own: product information, warehouse information, call center information, customer service information, service information, customer account information, bank information, cloud computing information, digital media download information, and reviews of customers for product information (Amazon, 2012). There will always be some kind of the potential risks to the information maintained by any business or person because new vulnerabilities are found every day. Just recently, on August 7, 2012, a wired magazine reporterÃ¢â¬â¢s information stored on his Google account, Twitter account, MacBook, iPad, and iPhone where erased without the user wanting this done. A hacker that goes by the name of Phobia comprised the reporters Amazon account with a security exploit. The security exploit allowed Phobia to access the reporterÃ¢â¬â¢s Amazon account by calling and resetting the passwords over the phone with the reporters co mpromised AppleCare ID and Amazon ID (Kerr, 2012). Amazon responded with the following, Ã¢â¬Å"We have investigated the reported exploit, and can confirm the exploit has been closed as of yesterday afternoon (Kerr, 2012).Ã¢â¬ Another major breach in security for Amazon occurred on the Zappos.com, which Amazon also owns. 24Ã million accounts where compromised, which included the following account information: names, shipping addresses, billing addresses, phone numbers, and email addresses (Vilches, 2012). Zappos CEO Tony Hsieh wrote in an email that the hackers gained access to the internal network of Zappos allowing the hackerÃ¢â¬â¢s access to the server that was in Kentucky. On October 28, 2011 a researcher uncovered a massive security flaw in the Amazon Cloud service that is provided by Amazon (Hickey, 2011). A team of German researchers found a way that hackers would be able to access user accounts and data. The methods of attack the security researchers found that the Amazon Cloud service was vulnerable to where signature wrapping and cross site scripting. XML signature wrapping attacks were developed that could completely take over a user account with administrator permissions for the Amazon Cloud accounts. The AWS interface could also be manipulated to run an executable code and create cross-site scripting attacks. The researchers said that they had access to all the customer data, including authentication data, tokens, and passwords (Hickey, 2011). There are many other vulnerabilities for Amazon that may exist but are not known. Intruders (hackers) are a major threat for Amazon as proven from the previously listed examples. When the attack is done by a small group or just one person the threat will fall into the unstructured category (Conklin, White, Williams, Davis, & Cothren, 2012). Threats caused by attacks by hackers that are in a criminal group are known to fall into the structured category (Conklin, White, Williams, Davis, & Cothren, 2012). Physical security is important to remember because if a hacker can get into the internal network and infrastructure, it can be much easier to gain unauthorized access to the network. Information Security risk analysis is used to access the vulnerabilities, threats, and how to set controls for an organization (Whitman, 2011). List of what can be vulnerable: Web Servers, Computer Servers, Routers, Client, Databases, Firewalls, Software, Power, and Transmission. List of threats: Denial of Service Attacks, Spoofing and Masquerading, Malicious Code/Virus, Human Errors, Insider Attacks, Intrusion, Spamming, and Physical Damage to Hardware. List of costs: Trade Secrets, Client Secrets, Trust, Lost Sales, Clean up Costs, Information, Hardware, Software, Services, and Communication. List of controls to be used: Firewalls, IDS, Single Sign-on, DMZ, Security policy, EmployeeÃ Training, Configuration of Architecture, and Hardening of Environment. All of these lists can be put into a chart to help form a risk analysis and setup controls to be used for Amazon (Conklin, White, Williams, Davis, & Cothren, 2012). The legal, ethical, and regulatory requirements for protecting data need to be thought about when it comes to Information Security. Statutory laws, administrative laws, and common laws currently exist and are involved in computer security. New cyber laws are being defined by the courts, but none of these laws have been used yet (Conklin, White, Williams, Davis, & Cothren, 2012). In 1986, the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) was established to make it a crime to access computer systems when not authorized. Amazon has been around for 17 years and has a good track record for catching security risks and patching them quickly. With the internet continuing to grow at such a rapid pace, Amazon and everyone wanting to maintain their data integrity needs to tight down on their Information Security protocols. Information Security is turning into an important part in protect a businessÃ¢â¬â¢s information. References Amazon. (2012). Amazon. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com Byers, A. (2006). Jeff Bezos: the founder of Amazon.com. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group. Conklin, A., White, G., Williams, D., Davis, R., & Cothren, C. (2012). Principles of Computer Security: CompTIA Security+ and Beyond (Exam SY0-301) (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Company. Hickey, A. R. (2011, October 28). Researchers Uncover Ã¢â¬ËMassive Security FlawsÃ¢â¬â¢ In Amazon Cloud. Retrieved from http://www.crn.com/news/cloud/23190911/researchers-unconver-massive-security-flaws-in-amazon-cloud.htm Kerr, D. (2012, August 7). Amazon addresses security exploit after journalist hack. Retrieved from http://news.cnet.com/8301-1009_3-57488759-83/amazon-addresses-security-exploit-after-journalist-hack/ Vilches, J. (2012, January 16). Amazon owned Zappos hacked. Retrieved from http://www.techspot.com/news/47060-amazon-owned-zappos-hacked-24-million-accounts-compromised.html Whitman, M. E. (2011). Readings and Cases in Information Security: Law and Ethics. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Top Tok Essay Topics 2013 Tips! You must inject into your writing things people will be interested by. Essay ideas on city vs village life it's a topic of personal preference and convenience which determines whether people decide to stay in. There are things people do due to the actual need, and there are things made by men and women that are guided by their subjective urge to truly feel beautiful. If you are searching for one, you will find it on our site as we've made thousands of TOK texts for people around the world and can offer you extraordinary samples that can showcase our work together with get you started with your own. Making certain your evidence actually supports your claim is among the toughest characteristics of the essay. Real art can rarely be placed into practice for a consequence of the sudden impulse. Since our knowledge is mostly based on intuitions and assumptions about what an individual's behavior is likely to be5, it can then be inferred by historians what will occur in the future. Normally, in the conclusion the writers repeat the things that they have already stated quite a few times. Put simply, it's not possible to develop into a specialist in some practical sphere without actually practicing it for some time period. As a conclusion, our group of skilled experts also provides a last verdict which will help you make a well-informed choice. You may also consider looking at an exemplar online for each question that you're considering. Bear in mind the essay you're structuring isn't just like any other, it's a Theory of Knowledge Essay. Buying essays should not result in a headache. Clarity You have to be able to compose a well-structured essay. The Sample TOK Essay demonstrates the appropriate structure and content that has to be utilized in such essay. The Most Popular Tok Essay Topics 2013 Your school should supply the grading criteria. 2014-2015 school essay needs to be awarded were. This course is made for busy students, so you may quickly get clarity on what you will need to do and how. You've got to compose several academic papers over the span of a year. The research question is suitable, therefore it does not suit in the reduce markband. Thesis statement must discover the scholarship application. Completely eliminate the chance of plagiarism in your work. Writing techniques needed to research proposal. One of the most frequent problems students encounter is settling on a proper Research Question. As an IB student, you are conversant with every one of the regions of knowledge. Despite the very best teacher, you will probably need more help outside the classroom to acquire through the more challenging concepts and topics. From time to time, the toughest part for a student is to choose a suitable topic. What Has to be Done About Tok Essay Topics 2013 Idea of the proper way to comprehend one another's viewpoint, but it's to understand how to write at least try to inform your interests you begin with an analytic essay is when you are some way to begin on a superior paper. Your aim is to work with basic essay structure, as opposed to against it. Furthermore, the entire writing process will become a struggle if you aren't passionate in regards to the theme. Conclusion of TOK essay The aim of the conclusion is to make an awareness of closure in the audience. Look out for the TOK essay word limit as things can acquire deep and wordy in this portion of the TOK writing. Ask yourself questions ought to be able to compose an essay. It is possible to even use the strategies within this short article to your presentation. For each and every argument, you desire a counter argument. Therefore there's a mathematical structure isomorphic to our own universe and that's the universe we dwell in. Generally, analytical techniques are sometimes not successfully carried out, inducing the essay to get rid of coherence on occasion because an argument might not be fully followed through. The answers to these questions might or might not result in a reformulation of the principle.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
in mental health however are not adequate to match for it. It was estimated that, in 1990, mental and neurological disorders accounted for about 10% of the total DALYs (disability adjusted life years) lost due to all diseases and injuries. This was 12% in 2000. By 2020, it is projected that the burden of these disorders will have increased to 15% (World health report 2001). Psychiatric disorders are now among the top ten causes of economic burden of diseases while depression alone is second in the list (30). According to census of India (2001) and National sample survey organisation (NSSO 2002) 10% of total disability in India is attributed to mental disorders. The projected estimates for the year 2020 reveal that in India,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Notwithstanding, psychiatry has been rated higher than any other discipline on intellectual challenge (3). Understanding the factors influencing students interest and respect for psychiatry is essential because of its obvious relevance to recruitment to psychiatry. Of the factors influencing students interest in psychiatry, medical school (institutional) factors may be amenable to corrective measures (Pardes, 1982; Zimny Sata, 1986) (India). MATERIAL AND METHOD This descriptive cross sectional questionnaire based comparative study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in north India, that caters patients from several states such as Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Haryana, and Delhi. Two groups were formed Group A: first year professional students Group B: interns, undergoing compulsory rotatory internship after completion of final year professional exams. First year professional students and interns were approached through the college administration. The students were informed about the purpose of the study and that their participation was voluntary. They were assured that their identity and responses would remain confidential as no identifying data were required. All the first year professional students and interns who agreed to participate and ready to give consent wereShow MoreRelatedGender Equality And Its Effects On Society1363 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin what is called a gender society; males commonly monopolize politics, and engage in activities that are considered more noteworthy (Fleras, 2012, p. 155 156). Females on the other hand are often expected to take on maternal and parental roles, however this is often seen as work that is not important within many societies (Fleras, 2012, p. 155 156). These expectations, compounded with the fact that females have constantly been denied rights; both in the past as well as the present, makes it clearRead MoreThe Importance Of A Water Promotion Program710 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesPanabaker, 2017-2018). 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